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Telefonsysteme

This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. .

 LandAllgemeine BewertungInlandInternational
Afghanistanlimited fixed-line telephone service; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networksaided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve rapidlycountry code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2009)
Ägyptenunderwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relaylargest fixed-line system in the region; as of 2010 there were three mobile-cellular networks with a total of more than 55 million subscriberscountry code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2009)
Albaniendespite new investment in fixed lines teledensity remains low with roughly 10 fixed lines per 100 people; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effectiveoffsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile-cellular phone service has been available since 1996; by 2009, four companies were providing mobile services and mobile teledensity exceeded 130 per 100 persons; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005 but growth has been slow; Internet cafes are popular in Tirana and have started to spread outside the capitalcountry code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2009)
Algerienprivatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria; the license will allow Orascom to develop high-speed data and other specialized services and contribute to meeting the large unfulfilled demand for basic residential telephony; Internet broadband services began in 2003a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons is offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; in 2009, combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 100 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2009)
Amerikanische Jungferninselnmodern system with total digital switching, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relayfull range of services availablecountry code - 1-340; submarine cable connections to US, the Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth stations - NA
Amerikanisch-SamoaNAgood telex, telegraph, facsimile, and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth stationcountry code - 1-684; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat-Pacific Ocean)
AndorraNAmodern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchangescountry code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain
Angolalimited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately-owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001only about two fixed-lines per 100 persons; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 65 telephones per 100 persons in 2009country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2009)
AnguillaNAmodern internal telephone systemcountry code - 1-264; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2007)
Antarktikalocal systems at some research stationscommercial cellular networks operating in a small number of locationscountry code - none allocated; via satellite (including mobile Inmarsat and Iridium systems) to and from all research stations, ships, aircraft, and most field parties (2007)
Antigua und BarbudaNAgood automatic telephone systemcountry code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2007)
Äquatorialguineadigital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and good mobile coveragefixed-line density is about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2009 stood at about 70 percent of the populationcountry code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2009)
Argentinienthe "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998" opened the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improvingmicrowave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; fixed-line teledensity is increasing gradually and mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; broadband Internet services are gaining groundcountry code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2009)
Armenientelecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004 and a second provider began operations in mid-2005reliable modern fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan in major cities and towns; significant but ever-shrinking gaps remain in mobile-cellular coverage in rural areascountry code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2008)
Arubamodern fully automatic telecommunications systemincreased competition through privatization; 3 mobile-cellular service providers are now licensedcountry code - 297; landing site for the PAN-AM submarine telecommunications cable system that extends from the US Virgin Islands through Aruba to Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and the west coast of South America; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links (2007)
Aserbaidschanrequires considerable expansion and modernization; fixed-line telephony and a broad range of other telecom services are controlled by a state-owned telecommunications monopoly and growth has been stagnant; more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market with four providers in 2009teledensity of 17 fixed lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased and is rapidly approaching 100 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Nakhchivancountry code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2009)
Äthiopieninadequate telephone system with the Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation (ETC) maintaining a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk servicethe number of fixed lines and mobile telephones is increasing from a small base; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is only about 5 per 100 personscountry code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2009)
Australienexcellent domestic and international servicedomestic satellite system; significant use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile telephonescountry code - 61; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Southern Cross fiber optic submarine cable provides links to New Zealand and the United States; satellite earth stations - 19 (10 Intelsat - 4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean, 2 Inmarsat - Indian and Pacific Ocean regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2007)
Bahamasmodern facilitiestotally automatic system; highly developed; the Bahamas Domestic Submarine Network links 14 of the islands and is designed to satisfy increasing demand for voice and broadband internet servicescountry code - 1-242; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 (2007)
Bahrainmodern systemmodern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephonescountry code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1 (2007)
Bangladeschinadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in citiesfixed-line teledensity remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 30 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2009)
Barbadosisland-wide automatic telephone systemfixed-line teledensity of roughly 50 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density approaching 125 per 100 personscountry code - 1-246; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 1 (Intelsat -Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia (2009)
BelarusBelarus lags behind its neighbors in upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; modernization of the network progressing with roughly two-thirds of switching equipment now digitalstate-owned Beltelcom is the sole provider of fixed-line local and long distance service; fixed-line teledensity is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; multiple GSM mobile-cellular networks are experiencing rapid growth; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 100 telephones per 100 persons in 2009country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations (2008)
Belgienhighly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilitiesnationwide mobile-cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay networkcountry code - 32; landing point for a number of submarine cables that provide links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat - 3) (2007)
Belizeabove-average system; trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relayfixed-line teledensity of 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 55 per 100 personscountry code - 501; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6) (2008)
Benininadequate system of open-wire, microwave radio relay, and cellular connections; fixed-line network characterized by aging, deteriorating equipmentfixed-line teledensity only about 2 per 100 persons; spurred by the presence of multiple mobile-cellular providers, cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidlycountry code - 229; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; long distance fiber-optic links with Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat-Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Bermudagoodfully automatic digital telephone system; fiber optic trunk linescountry code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, and the Challenger Bermuda-1 (CB-1)submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)
Bhutanurban towns and district headquarters have telecommunications serviceslow teledensity; domestic service is poor especially in rural areas; mobile-cellular service available since 2003country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2009)
BolivienBolivian National Telecommunications Company (ENTEL) was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved.most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2009, teledensity reached about 75 per 100 personscountry code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Bosnien und Herzegowinapost-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by a internationally sponsored program, resulting in sharp increases in the number of fixed telephone lines availablefixed-line teledensity roughly 22 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and, in 2009, reached 70 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2009)
BotsuanaBotswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stationsfixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 7 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is rapidly approaching a teledensity of 100 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2008)
Brasiliengood working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations; mobile-cellular usage has more than tripled in the past 5 yearsfixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 90 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South Amrica-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilius, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2009)
Britische Jungferninselnworldwide telephone servicefixed line connections exceed 80 per 100 persons and mobile cellular subscribership is approaching 100 per 100 personscountry code - 1-284; connected via submarine cable to Bermuda; the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable provides connectivity to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean (2008)
Britisches Territorium im Indischen Ozeanseparate facilities for military and public needs are availableall commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internetcountry code (Diego Garcia) - 246; international telephone service is carried by satellite (2000)
Brunei Darussalamservice throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the USevery service availablecountry code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network, scheduled for completion by late 2008, will provide new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2009)
Bulgarieninherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relaythe Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated in 2005 in an effort to upgrade fixed-line services; mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, approached 150 telephones per 100 persons in 2009country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2009)
Burkina Fasosystem includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations; in 2006 the government sold a 51 percent stake in the national telephone company and ultimately plans to retain only a 23 percent stake in the companyfixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly from a low basecountry code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Burundisparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relaystelephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing but remains at a meager 10 per 100 personscountry code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2009)
Chileprivatization begun in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stationsnumber of fixed-line connections have stagnated in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching a level of 100 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilius submarine cables providing links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Chinadomestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure, and is partnering with foreign providers to expand its global reach; China in the summer of 2008 began a major restructuring of its telecommunications industry, resulting in the consolidation of its six telecom service operators to three, China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom, each providing both fixed-line and mobile servicesinterprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users exceeded 250 million by summer 2008; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in placecountry code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions) (2008)
CookinselnTelecom Cook Islands offers international direct dialing, Internet, email, fax, and Telexindividual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and fiber-optic cablecountry code - 682; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Costa Ricagood domestic telephone service in terms of breadth of coverage; under the terms of CAFTA-DR, the state-run telecommunications monopoly scheduled to be opened to competition from domestic and international firms, has been delayed by the nation's telecommunications regulator.point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is availablecountry code - 506; landing points for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), MAYA-1, and the Pan American Crossing submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Dänemarkexcellent telephone and telegraph servicesburied and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, multiple cellular mobile communications systemscountry code - 45; a series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2008)
DeutschlandGermany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western partGermany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countriescountry code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2001)
Dominicafully automatic networkFixed-line teledensity is roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity approached 150 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 1-767; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cables providing connectivity to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia
Dominikanische Republikrelatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay networkfixed-line teledensity is about 10 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile-cellular service with a subscribership of roughly 75 per 100 personscountry code - 1-809; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), Antillas 1, and the Fibralink submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Dschibutitelephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the countryDjibouti Telecom is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes mostly a microwave radio relay network; fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital; rural areas connected via wireless local loop radio systems; mobile cellular coverage is primarily limited to the area in and around Djibouti citycountry code - 253; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean and 1 Arabsat); Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network (2009)
Ecuadorgenerally elementary but being expandedfixed-line services provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 14 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership reached about 95 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM and South America-1 submarine cables that provide links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
El Salvadormultiple mobile-cellular providers are expanding services rapidly and in 2009 teledensity exceeded 100 per 100 persons; growth in fixed-line services has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competitionnationwide microwave radio relay systemcountry code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2009)
Eritreainadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system (2002)combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership is only about 3 per 100 persons (2009)country code - 291; note - international connections exist
Estlandforeign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service with a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services availablesubstantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the Internet, a large percentage of the population files income-tax returns online, and online voting was used for the first time in the 2005 local electionscountry code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; 2 international switches are located in Tallinn (2008)
Europäische Unionnote - see individual country entries of member states  
FalklandinselnNAgovernment-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islandscountry code - 500; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries
Färöergood international communications; good domestic facilitiesconversion to digital system completed in 1998; both NMT (analog) and GSM (digital) mobile telephone systems are installedcountry code - 298; satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic submarine cable to the Shetland Islands, linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland; fiber-optic submarine cable connection to Canada-Europe cable
Fidschimodern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications centertelephone or radio telephone links to almost all inhabited islands; most towns and large villages have automatic telephone exchanges and direct dialing; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 80 per 100 personscountry code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2009)
Finnlandmodern system with excellent servicedigital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needscountry code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
Frankreichhighly developedextensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite systemcountry code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries
Französisch-GuayanaNAfair open-wire and microwave radio relay systemcountry code - 594; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Französisch-PolynesienNAcombined fixed and mobile-cellular density is roughly 90 per 100 personscountry code - 689; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2009)
Gabunadequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stationsa growing mobile-cellular network with multiple providers is making telephone service more widely available; subscribership reached 90 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 241; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Gambiaadequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network; state-owned Gambia Telecommunications partially privatized in 2007combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity, aided by multiple mobile-cellular providers, approached 85 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 220; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; a landing station for the Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) undersea fiber-optic cable is scheduled for completion in 2011; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
GazastreifenGaza continues to repair the damage to its telecommunications infrastructure caused by fighting in 2009Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed line services; the Palestinian JAWWAL company provides cellular servicescountry code - 970 (2009)
Georgienfixed-line telecommunications network has only limited coverage outside Tbilisi; long list of people waiting for fixed line connections; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the countrycellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 60 per 100 people; urban fixed-line telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is availablecountry code - 995; the Georgia-Russia fiber optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available
Ghanaprimarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accracompetition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 60 per 100 persons and risingcountry code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2009)
Gibraltaradequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilitiesautomatic exchange facilitiescountry code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Grenadaautomatic, island-wide telephone systeminterisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone linkscountry code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad
Griechenlandadequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international servicemicrowave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islandscountry code - 30; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cyprus; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region)
Grönlandadequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digital since 1995microwave radio relay and satellitecountry code - 299; satellite earth stations - 15 (12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)) (2000)
Großbritannientechnologically advanced domestic and international systemequal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systemscountry code - 44; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
Guadeloupedomestic facilities inadequateNAcountry code - 590; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and Martinique
Guammodern system, integrated with US facilities for direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbersdigital system, including mobile-cellular service and local access to the Internetcountry code - 1-671; major landing point for submarine cables between Asia and the US (Guam is a trans-Pacific communications hub for major carriers linking the US and Asia); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Guatemalafairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemalastate-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opening the way for competition; fixed-line teledensity roughly 10 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are being concentrated on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100 per 100 personscountry code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
GuernseyNAfixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100 per 100 personscountry code - 44; 1 submarine cable
Guineainadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay systemConakry reasonably well served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding and exceeded 50 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Guinea-Bissausmall system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile-cellular communicationsfixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 35 per 100 in 2009country code - 245 (2008)
Guyanafair system for long-distance service; microwave radio relay network for trunk lines; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone servicesfixed-line teledensity is about 15 per 100 persons; ; mobile-cellular teledensity about 35 per 100 persons in 2005country code - 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Haititelecommunications infrastructure is among the least developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly bettermobile-cellular telephone services are expanding rapidly due, in part, to the introduction of low-cost GSM phones; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 40 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Hondurasthe number of fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in the number of subscribersbeginning in 2003, private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed-lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to an increase in fixed-line teledensity to roughly 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership reached 100 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Hongkongmodern facilities provide excellent domestic and international servicesmicrowave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic networkcountry code - 852; multiple international submarine cables provide connections to Asia, US, Australia, the Middle East, and Western Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China
Indiensupported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base reached 700 million, an overall teledensity of 60%, and subscribership is currently growing more than 15 million per month; urban teledensity has reached 100% and rural teledensity is about 20% and steadily growingmobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including Sea-Me-We-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Sea-Me-We-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2010)
Indonesiendomestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service goodcoverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidlycountry code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Insel ManNAlandline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone systemcountry code - 44; fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable
Irakthe 2003 liberation of Iraq severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq including international connections; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications through fiber optic links are in progress; the mobile cellular market has expanded rapidly and its subscribership base is expected to continue increasing rapidlyrepairs to switches and lines destroyed during 2003 continue; additional switching capacity is improving access; mobile-cellular service is available and centered on 3 GSM networks which are being expanded beyond their regional roots, improving country-wide connectivity; wireless local loop is available in some metropolitan areas and additional licenses have been issued with the hope of overcoming the lack of fixed-line infrastructurecountry code - 964; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region, and 1 Arabsat (inoperative)); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; international terrestrial fiber-optic connections have been established with Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Kuwait with planned connections to Iran and Jordan; a link to the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine fiber-optic cable is planned (2009)
Irancurrently being modernized and expanded with the goal of not only improving the efficiency and increasing the volume of the urban service but also bringing telephone service to several thousand villages, not presently connectedthe addition of new fiber cables and modern switching and exchange systems installed by Iran's state-owned telecom company have improved and expanded the fixed-line network greatly; fixed-line availability has more than doubled to nearly 26 million lines since 2000; additionally, mobile-cellular service has increased dramatically serving more than 50 million subscribers in 2009; combined fixed and mobile-cellular subscribership now exceeds 100 per 100 personscountry code - 98; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE with access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; satellite earth stations - 13 (9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat) (2009)
Irlandmodern digital system using cable and microwave radio relaysystem privatized but dominated by former state monopoly operator; increasing levels of broadband access particularly in urban areascountry code - 353; landing point for the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable with links to the US, Canada, and UK; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Islandtelecommunications infrastructure is modern and fully digitized, with satellite-earth stations, fiber-optic cables, and an extensive broadband networkliberalization of the telecommunications sector beginning in the late 1990s has led to increased competition especially in the mobile services segment of the marketcountry code - 354; the CANTAT-3 and FARICE-1 submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Canada, the Faroe Islands, UK, Denmark, and Germany; a planned new section of the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable will provide additional connectivity to Canada, US, and Ireland; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)
Israelmost highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largestgood system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; four privately-owned mobile-cellular service providers with countrywide coveragecountry code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
Italienmodern, well developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data serviceshigh-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunkscountry code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat
Jamaikafully automatic domestic telephone networkthe 1999 agreement to open the market for telecommunications services resulted in rapid growth in mobile-cellular telephone usage while the number of fixed-lines in use has declined; combined mobile-cellular teledensity exceeded 110 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 1-876; the Fibralink submarine cable network provides enhanced delivery of business and broadband traffic and is linked to the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) submarine cable in the Dominican Republic; the link to ARCOS-1 provides seamless connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Japanexcellent domestic and international servicehigh level of modern technology and excellent service of every kindcountry code - 81; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 7 Intelsat (Pacific and Indian Oceans), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), 3 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions), and 8 SkyPerfect JSAT (2008)
Jemensince unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications networkthe national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standardscountry code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti
Jerseystate-owned, partially-competitive market; increasingly modern, with some broadband accessdigital telephone system launch announced in 2006 and currently being implemented; fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined fixed and mobile-cellular density exceeds 100 per 100 personscountry code - 44; submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2008)
JohnstoninselNA512 KB satellite link to Hawaii teleport; 20 (POTS) voice and data linesNA (2002)
Jordanienservice has improved recently with increased use of digital switching equipment; microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; Internet penetration remains modest and slow-growing1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership rapidly approaching 100 per 100 personscountry code - 962; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) FEA and FLAG Falcon submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals); fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; participant in Medarabtel (2010)
Kaimaninselnreasonably good systemliberalization of telecom market in 2003; introduction of competition in the mobile-cellular market in 2004country code - 1-345; landing points for the MAYA-1, Eastern Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS), and the Cayman-Jamaica Fiber System submarine cables that provide links to the US and parts of Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Kambodschaadequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areasfixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by increasing competition among service providers, is increasing and stands at 40 per 100 personscountry code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2009)
Kamerunsystem includes cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter; Camtel, the monopoly provider of fixed-line service, provides connections for only about 1 per 100 persons; equipment is old and outdated, and connections with many parts of the country are unreliablemobile-cellular usage, in part a reflection of the poor condition and general inadequacy of the fixed-line network, has increased sharply, reaching a subscribership base of 40 per 100 personscountry code - 237; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Kanadaexcellent service provided by modern technologydomestic satellite system with about 300 earth stationscountry code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2007)
Kasachstaninherited an outdated telecommunications network from the Soviet era requiring modernizationintercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is gradually increasing and fixed-line teledensity now roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing and the subscriber base now is roughly 100 per 100 personscountry code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (2008)
Katarmodern system centered in Dohacombined fixed and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership exceeds 300 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 974; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2009)
Keniainadequate; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) systemsole fixed-line provider, Telkom Kenya, is slated for privatization; multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 50 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 254; The East Africa Marine System (TEAMS) and the SEACOM undersea fiber-optic cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Kirgisistantelecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic linksfixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; multiple mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeded 80 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line
Kiribatigenerally good quality national and international servicewire line service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; wireless service available in Tarawa since 1999country code - 686; Kiribati is being linked to the Pacific Ocean Cooperative Telecommunications Network, which should improve telephone service; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Kokosinseln (Keelinginseln)connected within Australia's telecommunication system; a local mobile-cellular network is in operationNAcountry code - 61; telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat) (2001)
Kolumbienmodern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; telecommunications sector liberalized during the 1990s; multiple providers of both fixed-line and mobile-cellular servicesfixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 90 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed line servicescountry code - 57; landing points for the ARCOS, Colombia-Florida Subsea Fiber (CFX-1), Maya-1, Pan American, and the South America-1 submarine cables providing links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers) (2009)
Komorensparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stationsfixed-line connections only about 3 per 100 persons; mobile cellular usage about 15 per 100 personscountry code - 269; HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion
Kongoprimary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable with services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of orderfixed-line infrastructure inadequate providing less than 1 connection per 100 persons; in the absence of an adequate fixed line infrastructure, mobile-cellular subscribership has surged and now exceeds 50 per 100 personscountry code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Kongo, Demokratische Republikbarely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; inadequate fixed line infrastructurestate-owned operator providing less than 1 fixed-line connection per 1000 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services has surged and subscribership in 2009 exceeded 10 million - roughly 15 per 100 personscountry code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Korea, Demokratische Volksrepublikadequate system; nationwide fiber-optic network; mobile-cellular service expanding beyond Pyongyangfiber-optic links installed down to the county level; telephone directories unavailable; mobile-cellular service, initiated in 2002, suspended in 2004; Orascom Telecom, an Egyptian company, launched mobile service on December 15, 2008 for the Pyongyang area with plans to expand nationwidecountry code - 850; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Russian - Indian Ocean region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing (2009)
Korea, Republikexcellent domestic and international services featuring rapid incorporation of new technologiesfixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available with a combined telephone subscribership of roughly 140 per 100 persons; rapid assimilation of a full range of telecommunications technologies leading to a boom in e-commercecountry code - 82; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 66
Kroatienthe telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s; local lines are digitalfixed-line teledensity holding steady at about 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions exceed the populationcountry code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2009)
Kubagreater investment beginning in 1994 and the establishment of a new Ministry of Information Technology and Communications in 2000 has resulted in improvements in the system; national fiber-optic system under development; 95% of switches digitized by end of 2006; mobile-cellular telephone service is expensive and must be paid in convertible pesos, which effectively limits subscribershipfixed-line density remains low at less than 10 per 100 inhabitants; mobile-cellular service expanding but remains less than 5 per 100 personscountry code - 53; fiber-optic cable laid to but not linked to US network; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) (2009)
Kuwaitthe quality of service is excellentnew telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and open-wire and fiber-optic cable; a mobile-cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwait, and the country is well supplied with pay telephonescountry code - 965; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); linked to Bahrain, Qatar, UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG) cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 6 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean, and 2 Arabsat)
Laosservice to general public is poor but improving; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate with remote areasmultiple service providers; mobile cellular usage growing very rapidlycountry code - 856; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and a second to be developed by China (2008)
Lesothorudimentary system consisting of a modest number of landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a small radiotelephone communication system; mobile-cellular telephone system is expandingprivatized in 2001, Telecom Lesotho was tasked with providing an additional 50,000 fixed-line connections within five years, a target not met; mobile-cellular service dominates the market and is expanding with a subscribership exceeding 30 per 100 persons in 2009; rural services are scantcountry code - 266; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Lettlandrecent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector; the number of fixed lines is decreasing as mobile-cellular telephone service expandsnumber of telecommunications operators has grown rapidly since the fixed-line market opened to competition in 2003; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 125 per 100 personscountry code - 371; the Latvian network is now connected via fiber optic cable to Estonia, Finland, and Sweden (2008)
Libanonrepair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now completetwo mobile-cellular networks provide good service; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 55 per 100 personscountry code - 961; submarine cable links to Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean); coaxial cable to Syria (2009)
Liberiathe limited services available are found almost exclusively in the capital Monrovia; fixed-line service stagnant and extremely limited; telephone coverage extended to a number of other towns and rural areas by four mobile-cellular network operatorsmobile-cellular subscription base growing and teledensity reached 25 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 231; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Libyentelecommunications system is state-owned and service is poor, but investment is being made to upgrade; state retains monopoly in fixed-line services; mobile-cellular telephone system became operational in 1996multiple providers for a mobile telephone system that is growing rapidly; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is approaching 100 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2009)
Liechtensteinautomatic telephone systemfixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined telephone service subscribership exceeds 150 per 100 personscountry code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay (2008)
Litauenadequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential accessrapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 140 per 100 personscountry code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2008)
Luxemburghighly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cablesfixed line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturatedcountry code - 352 (2008)
Macaufairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international servicestermination of monopoly over mobile-cellular telephone services in 2001 spurred sharp increase in subscriptions with mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 200 per 100 persons in 2010; fixed-line subscribership appears to have peaked and is now in declinecountry code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2010)
Madagaskarsystem is above average for the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized in the late 1990s, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developed; have been adding fixed line connections since 2005combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 30 per 100 personscountry code - 261; SEACOM undersea fiber-optic cable and the Lion undersea cable connecting to Reunion and Mauritius; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2009)
Malawirudimentary; privatization of Malawi Telecommunications (MTL), a necessary step in bringing improvement to telecommunications services, completed in 2006limited fixed-line subscribership of about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership about 15 per 100 personscountry code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Malaysiamodern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellentdomestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 135 per 100 personscountry code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2008)
Malediventelephone services have improved; interatoll communication through microwave links; all inhabited islands and resorts are connected with telephone and fax serviceeach island now has at least 1 public telephone, and there are mobile-cellular networks with a rapidly expanding subscribership that exceeds 100 per 100 personscountry code - 960; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2009)
Malidomestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areasfixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to nearly 30 per 100 personscountry code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
Maltaautomatic system featuring submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islandscombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 165 per 100 personscountry code - 356; submarine cable connects to Italy; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Marokkogood system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; Internet available but expensivefixed-line teledensity is roughly 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership approached 75 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optical telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia (2009)
Marshallinselndigital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, Internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuitsMajuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by high frequency radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) and mini-satellite telephonescountry code - 692; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2005)
Martiniquedomestic facilities are adequateNAcountry code - 596; microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Mauretanienlimited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations; mobile-cellular services expanding rapidlyMauritel, the national telecommunications company, was privatized in 2001 but remains the monopoly provider of fixed-line services; fixed-line teledensity 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular network coverage extends mainly to urban areas with a teledensity of 70 per 100 persons; mostly cable and open-wire lines; a domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitalscountry code - 222; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean, 2 Arabsat); optical-fiber and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) cables for internet access (2008)
Mauritiussmall system with good servicemonopoly over fixed-line services terminated in 2005; fixed-line teledensity roughly 30 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services launched in 1989 with teledensity in 2009 reaching 85 per 100 personscountry code - 230; landing point for the SAFE submarine cable that provides links to Asia and South Africa where it connects to the SAT-3/WASC submarine cable that provides further links to parts of East Africa, and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries (2009)
Mayottesmall system administered by French Department of Posts and TelecommunicationsNAcountry code - 262; microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communications to Comoros
Mazedoniencompetition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptionscombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 115 per 100 personscountry code - 389 (2009)
Mexikoadequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cabledespite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; Fixed-line teledensity is less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 75 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2009)
Mikronesienadequate systemislands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes), satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; mobile-cellular service available on Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yapcountry code - 691; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2002)
Moldaupoor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under waydepending on location, new subscribers may face long wait for service; multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 90 per 100 personscountry code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2009)
Monacomodern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customerscombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100%country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system
Mongoleinetwork is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable servicesvery low fixed-line teledensity; there are multiple mobile- cellular providers and subscribership is increasing rapidly;country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7
Montenegromodern telecommunications system with access to European satellitesGSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growingcountry code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system
Montserratmodern and fully digitalizedfixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone systems availablecountry code - 1-664; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad
Mosambika fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and chargesstagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala; extremely low fixed-line teledensity; despite significant growth in mobile-cellular services, teledensity remains low at about 25 per 100 personscountry code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean); landing point for the SEACOM fiber-optic cable
Myanmarmeets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and governmentsystem barely capable of providing basic service; mobile-cellular phone system is grossly underdeveloped with a subscribership base of only 1 per 100 personscountry code - 95; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2, Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and ShinSat (2009)
Namibiagood system; core fiber-optic network links most centers and connections are now digitalmultiple mobile-cellular providers with a combined subscribership of nearly 60 telephones per 100 persons; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 65 per 100 personscountry code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East (SAFE) submarine cable through South Africa; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (2008)
Nauruadequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilitiesNAcountry code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Nepalpoor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone networkcombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone service subscribership base only about 30 per 100 personscountry code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave landline to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2008)
Neukaledoniena submarine cable network connection between New Caledonia and Australia, completed in 2007, is expected to significantly increase network capacity and improve high-speed connectivity and access to international networkscombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership exceeds 100 per 100 personscountry code - 687; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2008)
Neuseelandexcellent domestic and international systemscombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership exceeds 150 per 100 personscountry code - 64; the Southern Cross submarine cable system provides links to Australia, Fiji, and the US; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean, 7 other)
Nicaraguasystem being upgraded by foreign investment; nearly all installed telecommunications capacity now uses digital technology, owing to investments since privatization of the formerly state-owned telecommunications companysince privatization, access to fixed-line and mobile-cellular services has improved but teledensity still lags behind other Central American countries; fixed-line teledensity roughly 5 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership is increasing and reached 55 per 100 persons in 2009; connected to Central American Microwave Systemcountry code - 505; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber optic submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Niederlandehighly developed and well maintainedextensive fixed-line fiber-optic network; large cellular telephone system with 5 major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) servicescountry code - 31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 (3 Intelsat - 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (2007)
Niederländische Antillengenerally adequate facilitiesextensive interisland microwave radio relay linkscountry code - 599; submarine cables - 2; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Nigerinadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Nigercombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains less than 20 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 plannedcountry code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2009)
Nigeriafurther expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problemthe addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership reaching 50 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2009)
Niuedomestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on islandsingle-line telephone system connects all villages on islandcountry code - 683 (2001)
Nördliche MarianenNANAcountry code - 1-670; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Norfolkinseladequatefree local callscountry code - 672; undersea coaxial cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station - 1
Norwegenmodern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in EuropeNorway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systemscountry code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)
Omanmodern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable; domestic satellite system with 8 earth stationsfixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing with fixed-line phone service gradually being introduced to remote villages using wireless local loop systemscountry code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2008)
Österreichhighly developed and efficientfixed-line subscribership has been in decline since the mid-1990s with mobile-cellular subscribership eclipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are availablecountry code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2007)
Pakistanthe telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, exceeding 100 million in 2009, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; approximately 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areascountry code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2009)
PalauNAfixed-line and mobile-cellular services available with a combined subscribership of roughly 100 per 100 personscountry code - 680; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2008)
Panamadomestic and international facilities well developedmobile-cellular telephone subscribership has increased rapidlycountry code - 507; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), the MAYA-1, and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that together provide links to the US and parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System (2008)
Papua-Neuguineaservices are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication servicesaccess to telephone services is not widely available; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 15 per 100 personscountry code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service (2009)
Paraguaythe fixed-line market is a state monopoly and fixed-line telephone service is meager; principal switching center is in Asunciondeficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providerscountry code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Peruadequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stationsfixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, has increased to roughly 85 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Philippinengood international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequatetelecommunications infrastructure includes the following platforms: fixed line, mobile cellular, cable TV, over-the-air TV, radio and Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), fiber optic cable, and satellite; mobile-cellular communications now dominate the industrycountry code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2010)
Pitcairninselnsatellite phone servicesdomestic communication via radio (CB)country code - 872; satellite earth station - 1 (Inmarsat)
Polenmodernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular servicesmobile-cellular service available since 1993 and provided by three nation-wide networks with a fourth provider beginning operations in late 2006; coverage is generally good with some gaps in the east; fixed-line service lags in rural areascountry code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2009)
PortugalPortugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilitiesintegrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stationscountry code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2008)
Puerto Ricomodern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capabilitydigital telephone system; mobile-cellular servicescountry code - 1-787, 939; submarine cables provide connectivity to the US, Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
Réunionadequate system; principal center is Saint-Denismodern open-wire and microwave radio relay networkcountry code - 262; radiotelephone communication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new microwave route to Mauritius; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC/SAFE) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Ruandasmall, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business, education, and governmentthe capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased to about 25 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Rumänienthe telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular servicesmore than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, expanding rapidly, roughly 115 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2009)
Russische Föderationthe telephone system is experiencing significant changes; there are more than 1,000 companies licensed to offer communication services; access to digital lines has improved, particularly in urban centers; Internet and e-mail services are improving; Russia has made progress toward building the telecommunications infrastructure necessary for a market economy; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to some 230 million in 2009; a large demand for fixed line service remains unsatisfiedcross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, the telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low densitycountry code - 7; Russia is connected internationally by undersea fiber optic cables; digital switches in several cities provide more than 50,000 lines for international calls; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2008)
Saint-Martinfully integrated accessdirect dial capability with both fixed and wireless systemscountry code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe
SalomonenNAmobile-cellular telephone density is about 5 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 677; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Sambiaamong the best in Sub-Saharan Africahigh-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firmscountry code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel
Samoaadequatecombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 85 telephones per 100 persons; coverage extended to roughly 95 percent of the countrycountry code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
San Marinoautomatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian systemcombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 150 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 378; connected to Italian international network
São Tomé und Príncipelocal telephone network of adequate quality with most lines connected to digital switchescombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 35 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Saudi-Arabienmodern system including a combination of extensive microwave radio relays, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cablesmobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidlycountry code - 966; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region) (2008)
Schwedenhighly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetrationcoaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channelscountry code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)
Schweizhighly developed telecommunications infrastructure with excellent domestic and international servicesranked among leading countries for fixed-line teledensity and infrastructure; mobile-cellular subscribership roughly 120 per 100 persons; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networkscountry code - 41; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean)
Senegalgood system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk systemabove-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidlycountry code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Serbienreplacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war has resulted in a modern telecommunications system more than 95% digitalized in 2009wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007country code - 381 (2009)
Serbien und MontenegroNANAcountry code - 381; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Seychelleneffective systemcombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is 130 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelagocountry code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Sierra Leonemarginal telephone service with poor infrastructurethe national microwave radio relay trunk system connects Freetown to Bo and Kenema; while mobile-cellular service is growing rapidly from a small base, service area coverage remains limitedcountry code - 232; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Simbabwesystem was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenanceconsists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller onescountry code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 2 international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
Singapurexcellent serviceexcellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service in February 2005; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is more than 180 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2008)
Sint Maartengenerally adequate facilitiesextensive interisland microwave radio relay linkscountry code - 599; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the Americas-2 submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
SlowakeiSlovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular servicesanalog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular servicescountry code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Slowenienwell-developed telecommunications infrastructurecombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 150 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 386
Somaliathe public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities while charging the lowest international rates on the continentlocal cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centerscountry code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite
Spanienwell developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 50 per 100 personscombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 175 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries
Spitzbergenprobably adequatelocal telephone servicecountry code - 47-790; satellite earth station - 1 of unknown type (for communication with Norwegian mainland only)
Sri Lankatelephone services have improved significantly and are available in most parts of the countrynational trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems and mobile cellular subscribership is increasingcountry code - 94; the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
St. Barthélemyfully integrated accessdirect dial capability with both fixed and wireless systemscountry code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe
St. Helena, Ascension und Tristan da Cunhacan communicate worldwideautomatic digital networkcountry code (Saint Helena) - 290, (Ascension Island) - 247; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations - 5 (Ascension Island - 4, Saint Helena - 1)
St. Kitts und Nevisgood interisland and international connectionsinterisland links via Eastern Caribbean Fiber Optic cable; construction of enhanced wireless infrastructure launched in November 2004country code - 1-869; connected internationally by the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables
St. Luciaadequate systemsystem is automatically switchedcountry code - 1-758; the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables, along with Intelsat from Martinique, carry calls internationally; direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados
St. Pierre und MiquelonadequateNAcountry code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system
St. Vincent und die Grenadinenadequate systemislandwide, fully automatic telephone system; VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to the other islands of the Grenadines; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 1-784; the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and Southern Caribbean fiber optic system (SCF) submarine cables carry international calls; connectivity also provided by VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia
Südafrikathe system is the best developed and most modern in Africacombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 105 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoriacountry code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber optic cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)
Sudanwell-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major citiesconsists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stationscountry code - 249; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2000)
Südgeorgien und die Südlichen SandwichinselnNANAcoastal radiotelephone station at Grytviken
Surinameinternational facilities are goodcombined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 175 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay networkcountry code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Swasilanda somewhat modern but not an advanced systemsingle source for mobile-cellular service with a geographic coverage of about 90% and a rising subscribership base; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity exceeded 60 telephones per 100 persons in 2009; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relaycountry code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Syrienfair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology and expansion of the network to rural areasthe number of fixed-line connections has increased markedly since 2000; mobile-cellular service growing with telephone subscribership reaching nearly 50 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 963; submarine cable connection to Egypt, Lebanon, and Cyprus; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel
Tadschikistanforeign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital more than 90% complete by 2009fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998 while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and townscountry code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2009)
Taiwanprovides telecommunications service for every business and private needthoroughly modern; completely digitalizedcountry code - 886; roughly 15 submarine fiber cables cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2
Tansaniatelecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under constructionfixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digitalcountry code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Thailandhigh quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkokfixed line system provided by both a government owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidlycountry code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean)
Timor-Lesterudimentary service in urban and some rural areassystem suffered significant damage during the violence associated with independence; limited fixed-line services; mobile-cellular services and coverage available in urban and some rural areascountry code - 670; international service is available in major urban centers
Togofair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular systemmicrowave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 40 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominatingcountry code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie
Tokelaumodern satellite-based communications systemradiotelephone service between islandscountry code - 690; radiotelephone service to Samoa; government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok); satellite earth stations - 3
Tongacompetition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communications Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; SCT granted approval to introduce high-speed digital service for telephone, Internet, and television while TCC has exclusive rights to operate the mobile-phone network; international telecom services are provided by government-owned Tonga Telecommunications International (TTI)combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 70 telephones per 100 persons; fully automatic switched networkcountry code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2009)
Trinidad und Tobagoexcellent international service; good local servicemobile-cellular teledensity roughly 185 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Tschadinadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone densityfixed-line connections for only about 1 per 1000 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 25 per 100 personscountry code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Tschechische Republikprivatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; virtually all exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relayaccess to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s but the number of fixed line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the populationcountry code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2009)
Tunesienabove the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the countryin an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government has awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between the two mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; a third mobile, fixed, and ISP operator was licensed in 2009 and will begin offering services in 2010; expansion of mobile-cellular services to include multimedia messaging and e-mail and Internet to mobile phone services also leading to a surge in subscribership; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 100 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches
Türkeicomprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially in mobile-cellular servicesadditional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidlycountry code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Turkmenistantelecommunications network remains underdeveloped and progress toward improvement is slow; strict government control and censorship inhibits liberalization and modernizationTurkmentelekom, in cooperation with foreign partners, has installed high speed fiber-optic lines and has upgraded most of the country's telephone exchanges and switching centers with new digital technology; mobile telephone usage is expanding with Russia's Mobile Telesystems (MTS) the primary service provider; combined fixed-line and mobile teledensity is about 40 per 100 personscountry code - 993; linked by fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; an exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat (2008)
Turks- und Caicosinselnfully digital system with international direct dialingfull range of services available; GSM wireless service availablecountry code - 1-649; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber optic telecommunications submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Tuvaluserves particular needs for internal communicationsradiotelephone communications between islandscountry code - 688; international calls can be made by satellite
Ugandamobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applicationsintercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 30 per 100 persons in 2009country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
UkraineUkraine's telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular systemat independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and in disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is rising and the domestic trunk system is being improved; about one-third of Ukraine's networks are digital and a majority of regional centers now have digital switching stations; improvements in local networks and local exchanges continue to lag; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market which has reached 120 mobile phones per 100 peoplecountry code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Ungarnthe telephone system has been modernized; the system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones since 2000 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connectionscountry code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Uruguayfully digitalizedmost modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 150 telephones per 100 personscountry code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Usbekistandigital exchanges in large cities but still antiquated and inadequate in rural areasthe state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are growing rapidly, with the subscriber base exceeding 16 million in 2009country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan plans to establish a fiber-optic connection to Afghanistan (2009)
VanuatuNANAcountry code - 678; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Vatikanstadtautomatic digital exchangeconnected via fiber optic cable to Telecom Italia networkcountry code - 39; uses Italian system
Venezuelamodern and expandingdomestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services; combined fixed and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 130 per 100 personscountry code - 58; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network; constructing submarine cable to provide connectivity to Cuba with an estimated date of completion in late 2011 (2010)
Vereinigte Arabische Emiratemodern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubaimicrowave radio relay, fiber optic and coaxial cablecountry code - 971; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia
Vereinigte Staatena large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications systema large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the countrycountry code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions) (2000)
VietnamVietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication systemall provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidlycountry code - 84; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, scheduled for completion by the end of 2008, will provide new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Wakesatellite communications; 2 DSN circuits off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS); located in the Hawaii area code - 808NANA
Wallis und FutunaNANAcountry code - 681
Weihnachtsinselservice provided by the Australian networkGSM mobile-cellular telephone service replaced older analog system in February 2005country code - 61-8; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat provides telephone and telex service) (2005)
Welt insgesamtNANANA
Westjordanlandcontinuing political and economic instability has impeded significant liberalization of the telecommunications industryIsraeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed line services; PALTEL plans to establish a fiber-optic connection to Jordan to route domestic mobile calls; the Palestinian JAWWAL company and WATANIYA PALESTINE provide cellular servicescountry code - 970; 1 international switch in Ramallah (2009) (2009)
Westsaharasparse and limited systemNAcountry code - 212; tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) linked to Rabat, Morocco
Zentralafrikanische Republiknetwork consists principally of microwave radio relay and low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communicationlimited telephone service with less than 1 fixed-line connection per 100 persons; spurred by the presence of multiple mobile-cellular service providers, cellular usage is increasing from a low base; most fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone services are concentrated in Banguicountry code - 236; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Zypernexcellent in both area under government control and area administered by Turkish Cypriotsopen-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relaycountry code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat)

 


Quellen
  • CIA World Factbook - Telephone system; abgerufen am 25.02.2011
    The following terms and abbreviations are used:

    Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia).
    Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).
    CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.
    Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange.
    Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other.
    Coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies.
    Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).
    DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense).
    Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).
    Fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.
    GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982.
    HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range.
    Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.
    Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC).
    Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.
    Landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground.
    Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.
    Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system.
    Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network.
    Microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path.
    NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).
    Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network.
    Radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets.
    PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).
    SAFE - South African Far East Cable
    Satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.
    Satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.
    Satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).
    SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range.
    Shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances.
    Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.
    Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications.
    Submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.
    TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.
    Telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.
    Telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission.
    Telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges.
    Tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances.
    Trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines.
    UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range.
    VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz range.

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