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Menschenhandel

Der Begriff Menschenhandel benennt - anders als der Kinderhandel - vor allem eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Ausbeutungserscheinungen, seltener den eigentlichen Handel. Nicht als Menschenhandel gilt der Menschenschmuggel, bei dem es lediglich um den Transport bzw. das Über-die-Grenze-Bringen von Menschen geht.

In Deutschland ist der Menschenhandel nach § 232 und § 233 des StGB strafbar. In Österreich wird die Straftat Grenzüberschreitender Prostitutionshandel genannt.

Das Außenministerium der Vereinigten Staaten schätzte 2005, dass jährlich 600.000 bis 800.000 Männer, Frauen und Kinder über internationale Grenzen gehandelt werden, etwa 80 % davon Frauen und Mädchen.

In der folgenden Tabelle finden Sie die aktuelle Einschätzungen der CIA zur aktuellen Situation incl. Rating in den betroffenen Ländern: 

Land Aktuelle SituationRating*
AlgerienAlgeria is a transit and, to a lesser extent, a destination and source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; criminal networks which sometimes extend to sub-Saharan Africa and to Europe are involved in both human smuggling and traffickingStufe 3 - the Government of Algeria does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government made no discernible effort to enforce its 2009 anti-trafficking law; it also failed to identify and protect trafficking victims and continued to lack adequate measures to protect victims and prevent trafficking (2012)
ÄquatorialguineaEquatorial Guinea is primarily a destination country for children trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and possibly for the purpose of sexual exploitation; children have been trafficked from nearby countries for domestic servitude, market labor, ambulant vending, and possibly sexual exploitation; women may also be trafficked to Equatorial Guinea from Cameroon, Benin, other neighboring countries, and China for sexual exploitationStufe 3 - Equatorial Guinea is not making significant efforts to comply with the minimum standards on the elimination of trafficking; despite limited law enforcement action against suspected human smugglers and traffickers, including complicit public officials, the government has made no tangible efforts to provide victims of trafficking with the protective services mandated in its 2004 anti-trafficking law; prevention efforts have decreased, as the government did not hold any public awareness campaigns and its interagency commission on human trafficking took little, if any, action; the government's response to human trafficking has been inadequate, particularly given the government's substantial financial resources (2008)
AserbaidschanAzerbaijan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor, and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; women and some children from Azerbaijan are trafficked to Turkey, the UAE, Russia, and Iran for the purpose of sexual exploitation; men and boys are trafficked to Russia and Moldova for the purpose of forced labor; Azerbaijan serves as a transit country for victims from Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan trafficked to Turkey and the UAE for sexual exploitation; Azerbaijan is also a destination country for men from Turkey and Afghanistan, and Chinese men and women for forced laborStufe 2 Watch List - Azerbaijan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for not fully complying with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the Government of Azerbaijan has not made sufficient progress in investigating, prosecuting, or convicting labor trafficking offenses or in identifying victims of forced labor (2008)
Burkina FasoBurkina Faso is a country of origin, transit, and destination for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; children are forced to work as farm hands, gold panners and washers, street vendors, domestic servants, and beggars; girls are exploited in the commercial sex trade; women from Burkina Faso are recruited for legitimate jobs in Europe and are subsequently forced into prostitution; West African women are lured to Burkina Faso for legal work and are forced into domestic servitude, prostitution, or forced laborStufe 2 - Burkina Faso does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government recognizes that sex trafficking and forced labor are problems and continued efforts to identify child victims; steps have not been taken to identify adult victims among vulnerable populations; the government sustained anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts but struggled to compile complete data on these efforts (2012)
ChinaChina is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor; the majority of trafficking in China occurs within the country's borders, there are reports in recent years that Chinese men, women, and children may be subjected to conditions of sex trafficking and forced labor in numerous countries and territories worldwide; women and children are trafficked to China from Burma, Vietnam, Laos, Mongolia, Russia, North Korea, Romania, and Zimbabwe for forced labor, marriage, and prostitution; some Chinese children are forced into prostitution, and various forms of forced labor, including begging, stealing, and work in brick kilns and factoriesStufe 2 Watch List - China does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and did not demonstrate evidence of significant efforts to address all forms of trafficking or effectively protect victims; however, China has increased its attention to trafficking of women and children nationwide; China continues to lack a formal, nationwide procedure to systematically identify victims of trafficking (2008)
EritreaEritrea is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; each year, large numbers of migrant workers depart Eritrea in search of work, particularly in the Gulf States, where some are likely to become victims of forced labor, including in domestic servitude, or commercial sexual exploitation; Eritrean children also work in various economic sectors, including domestic service, street vending, small-scale factories, and agriculture; child laborers frequently suffer abuse from their employers and some may be subjected to conditions of forced laborStufe 3 - the Government of Eritrea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the Eritrean Government does not operate with transparency and published neither data nor statistics regarding its efforts to combat human trafficking; the government made no known progress in prosecuting and punishing trafficking crimes over the reporting period and did not appear to provide any significant assistance to victims of trafficking (2009)
Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau is a country of origin and destination for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the scope of the problem of trafficking women or men for forced labor or forced prostitution is unknown; boys reportedly were transported to southern Senegal for forced manual and agricultural labor; girls may be subjected to forced domestic service and child prostitution in Senegal and Guinea; both boys and girls are forced to work as street vendors in cities in Guinea-Bissau and SenegalStufe 2 Watch List - the government of Guinea-Bissau does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government acknowledged human trafficking is a problem and enacted a comprehensive anti-trafficking law in June 2011, followed by a national plan of action for implementing the law; the government facilitated the repatriation of 120 trafficking victims from Senegal and gave a small amount of funding to NGO shelters that provided victim care but did not pursue criminal action against trafficking offenders during the year (2012)
IranIran is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude; Iranian women are trafficked internally for the purpose of forced prostitution and for forced marriages to settle debts; Iranian and Afghan children living in Iran are trafficked internally for the purpose of forced marriages, commercial sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude as beggars or laborers to pay debts, provide income, or support drug addiction of their families; press reports indicate that criminal organizations play a significant role in human trafficking to and from Iran, in connection with smuggling of migrants, drugs, and arms; Iranian women and children are also subjected to sex trafficking in Pakistan, Turkey, Qatar, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Iraq, France, Germany, and the United KingdomStufe 3 - Iran did not report any law enforcement efforts to punish trafficking offenders and continues to lack any semblance of victim protection measures; victims of trafficking are, by government policy, detained and deported if foreign, or simply jailed or turned away if Iranian; lack of access to Iran by US Government officials impedes the collection of information on the country's human trafficking problem and the government's efforts to curb it (2009)
KongoRepublic of the Congo is a source and destination country for children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor or, to a lesser extent, sex trafficking; most child trafficking victims are from Benin, though Togo, Mali, Guinea, Cameroon, Senegal, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are also sources of victims subjected to forced domestic labor, market vending, and fishing, as well as commercial sexual exploitationStufe 2 Watch List - the Republic of the Congo is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons; the government enacted the Child Protection Code in June 2010, informally referred victims to foster care, and continued implementation of its 2009-10 National Action Plan; a lack of trained law enforcement personnel and adequate, consistent funding for prevention efforts seriously limited the government's ability to address trafficking and assist victims (2008)
Kongo, Demokratische RepublikDemocratic Republic of the Congo is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to trafficking for the purposes of forced labor and forced prostitution; the majority of this trafficking is internal, and much of it is perpetrated by armed groups and government forces outside government control within the country's unstable eastern provinces; Congolese women and children are exploited in forced prostitution, domestic servitude, and forced agricultural labor in Angola, South Africa, Republic of the Congo, as well as East African, Middle Eastern, and European nationsStufe 3 - the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government did not show evidence of progress in prosecuting and punishing labor or sex trafficking offenders, including members of its own armed forces, in providing protective services for the vast majority of trafficking victims, or in raising public awareness of human trafficking (2010)
Korea, Demokratische VolksrepublikNorth Korea is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; the most common form of trafficking involves North Korean women and girls who cross the border into China voluntarily; additionally, North Korean women and girls are lured out of North Korea to escape poor social and economic conditions by the promise of food, jobs, and freedom, only to be forced into prostitution, marriage, or exploitative labor arrangements once in China; within the country, North Koreans do not have a choice in the work the government assigns them and are not free to change jobs at willStufe 3 - North Korea does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government does not acknowledge the existence of human rights abuses in the country or recognize trafficking, either within the country or transnationally (2008)
KubaCuba is a source country for adults and some children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; prostitution of children reportedly occurs in Cuba as prostitution is not criminalized for anyone above 16 years old; the scope of trafficking within Cuba is particularly difficult to gauge due to the closed nature of the government and sparse non-governmental or independent reportingStufe 3 - Cuba does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government did not publicize information about government measures to address human trafficking through prosecution, protection, or prevention efforts during the reporting period (2010)
KuwaitKuwait is a destination country for men and women subjected to forced labor and, to a lesser degree, forced prostitution; men and women migrate from India, Egypt, Bangladesh, Syria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Nepal, Iran, Jordan, Ethiopia, and Iraq to work in Kuwait, most of them in the domestic service, construction, and sanitation sectors; although most of these migrants enter Kuwait voluntarily, upon arrival some are subjected to conditions of forced labor by their sponsors and labor agents, including nonpayment of wages, long working hours without rest, deprivation of food, threats, physical or sexual abuse, and restrictions on movement, such as the withholding of passports or confinement to the workplaceStufe 3 - Kuwait does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making sufficient efforts to do so; the government did not enact its draft comprehensive anti-trafficking law; Kuwait's victim-protection measures remain weak, particularly due to its lack of proactive victim-identification procedures and continued reliance on the sponsorship system, which causes victims of trafficking to be punished for immigration violations rather than protected (2009)
LibyenLibya is a transit and destination country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; migrants seek employment in Libya as laborers and domestic workers or transit Libya en route to Europe; most of the estimated 1.5 to 2 million foreigners fled Libya during its 2011 revolution and many who stayed, especially those from sub-Saharan Africa, were detained as suspected mercenariesStufe 3 - the Libyan Government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the TNC has failed to demonstrate significant efforts to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses or to protect trafficking victims; the government's policies and practices with respect to undocumented migrant workers resulted in Libyan authorities detaining and punishing trafficking victims for unlawful acts that were committed as a result of being trafficked (2012)
MalaysiaMalaysia is a destination and, to a lesser extent, a source and transit country for women and children trafficked for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation, and men, women, and children for forced labor; Malaysia is mainly a destination country for men, women, and children who migrate willingly from countries including Indonesia, Nepal, India, Thailand, China, the Philippines, Burma, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Vietnam to work, some of whom are subjected to conditions of involuntary servitude by Malaysian employers in the domestic, agricultural, construction, plantation, and industrial sectors; a small number of Malaysian citizens were reportedly trafficked internally and abroad to Singapore, China, and Japan for commercial sexual exploitationStufe 2 Watch List - the Government of Malaysia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; while the government increased the number of convictions obtained under the Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Anti-Smuggling of Migrants Act during the year and continued public awareness efforts on trafficking, it did not effectively investigate and prosecute labor trafficking cases, and failed to address problems of government complicity in trafficking and lack of effective victim care and counseling by authorities (2009)
MaliMali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are found in conditions of forced labor in agricultural settings, gold mines, and the informal commercial sector, as well as forced begging both within Mali and neighboring countries; Malians and other Africans who travel through Mali to Mauritania, Algeria, or Libya, in hopes of reaching Europe are particularly at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking; men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to the longstanding practice of debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's black Tamachek community are subjected to traditional slavery-related practices, and this involuntary servitude reportedly has extended to their childrenStufe 2 - the Government of Mali does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government acknowledged that human trafficking is a problem in Mali, but it did not demonstrate significant efforts to prosecute and convict trafficking offenders; Mali was not placed on Tier 3 because the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is devoting sufficient resources to implement that plan (2012)
MauretanienMauritania is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to conditions of forced labor and sex trafficking; women, men, and children from traditional slave castes are subjected to slavery-related practices rooted in ancestral master-slave relationships; Mauritanian boys called talibe are trafficked within the country by religious teachers for forced begging; Mauritanian girls, as well as girls from Mali, Senegal, The Gambia, and other West African countries, are forced into domestic servitude; Mauritanian women and girls are forced into prostitution in the country or transported to countries in the Middle East for the same purposeStufe 3 - the Government of Mauritania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government acknowledges that some forms of trafficking are a problem in the country, and during the year, it created a multi-stakeholder body to lead its efforts related to child trafficking, child smuggling, and child labor; hereditary slavery was officially outlawed in 2007, but many officials do not recognize that the practice continues despite its prohibition; the government did not take proactive measures to identify trafficking victims or provide them with protective services, and it continued to jail individuals in prostitution and detain illegal migrants without screening either population for trafficking victims (2009)
MyanmarBurma is a source country for women, children, and men trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; Burmese women and children are trafficked to East and Southeast Asia for commercial sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and forced labor; Burmese children are subjected to conditions of forced labor in Thailand as hawkers and beggars; women are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation to Malaysia and China; some trafficking victims transit Burma from Bangladesh to Malaysia and from China to Thailand; Burma's internal trafficking remains the most serious concern occurring primarily from villages to urban centers and economic hubs for labor in industrial zones, agricultural estates, and commercial sexual exploitation; the Burmese military continues to engage in the unlawful conscription of child soldiers, and continues to be the main perpetrator of forced labor inside Burma; a small number of foreign pedophiles occasionally exploit Burmese children in the countryStufe 3 - the driving factors behind Burma's significant trafficking problem are the regime's gross economic mismanagement and human rights abuses, the military's continued widespread use of forced and child labor, and the recruitment of child soldiers; although the government of Burma has taken some steps to address cross-border sex trafficking, it has not demonstrated serious and sustained efforts to clamp down on military and local authorities who are themselves deriving economic benefit from forced labor practices (2010)
NigerNiger is a source, transit, and destination country for children and women trafficked for forced labor and sexual exploitation; caste-based slavery practices, rooted in ancestral master-slave relationships, continue in isolated areas of the country; children are trafficked within Niger for forced begging, forced labor in gold mines, domestic servitude, sexual exploitation, and possibly for forced labor in agriculture and stone quarries; women and children from neighboring states are trafficked to and through Niger for domestic servitude, sexual exploitation, forced labor in mines and on farms, and as mechanics and welders; to a lesser extent, Nigerien women and children are recruited from Niger and transported to Nigeria, North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe for domestic servitude and sex traffickingStufe 2 Watch List - the Government of Niger does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government has not shown evidence of increasing efforts to address human trafficking; however, Niger was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is devoting sufficient resources to that plan; during the year, the government took some steps to finalize a national legal framework to combat trafficking and the president spoke publicly about the government's commitment to pursue vigorous law enforcement action against slavery, child prostitution, exploitive child begging, and other forms of human trafficking (2012)
Papua-NeuguineaPapua New Guinea is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; women and children are subjected to sex trafficking and domestic servitude; trafficked men are forced to labor in logging and mining camps; migrant women and teenage girls from Malaysia, Thailand, China, and the Philippines are subjected to sex trafficking; men from China are transported to the country for forced laborStufe 3 - Papua New Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; despite the government's acknowledgement of trafficking as a problem in the country, the government did not investigate any suspected trafficking offenses, prosecute or convict any trafficking offenders under existing laws, address allegations of officials complicit in human trafficking crimes, or identify or assist any trafficking victims (2008)
Russische FöderationRussia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for various purposes; people from Russia and other countries, including Belarus, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, are subjected to conditions of forced labor in Russia; children are subjected to prostitution in large Russian cities and to forced begging; Russian women were reported to be victims of sex trafficking in many countries, including in Northeast Asia, Europe, and throughout the Middle EastStufe 2 Watch List - Russia failed to show evidence of increased efforts to combat trafficking; victim protection in Russia remains very weak, as the government allocated scant funding for victim shelters and little funding for anti-trafficking efforts by governmental or non-governmental organizations; the government did not make discernible efforts to fund a national awareness campaign, although some local efforts were assisted by local government funding (2008)
Saudi-ArabienSaudi Arabia is a destination country for men and women subjected to forced labor and to a much lesser extent, forced prostitution; men and women from Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, and many other countries voluntarily travel to Saudi Arabia as domestic servants or other low-skilled laborers, but some subsequently face conditions indicative of involuntary servitude; women, primarily from Asian and African countries, were believed to have been forced into prostitution in Saudi Arabia; others were reportedly kidnapped and forced into prostitution after running away from abusive employers; Yemeni, Nigerian, Pakistani, Afghan, Chadian, and Sudanese children were subjected to forced labor as beggars and street vendors in Saudi Arabia, facilitated by criminal gangs; some Saudi nationals travel to destinations including Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh to solicit prostitutionStufe 3 - Saudi Arabia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; however, the government undertook some efforts to improve its response to the vast human trafficking problem in Saudi Arabia, including training government officials on its 2009 anti-trafficking law and conducting surprise visits to places where victims may be found; it also achieved its first conviction under its human trafficking law; nonetheless, the government did not prosecute and punish a significant number of trafficking offenders or significantly improve victim protection services (2008)
SimbabweZimbabwe is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; some victims of forced prostitution are subsequently transported across the border to South Africa where they suffer continued exploitation; Zimbabwean men, women, and children are subjected to forced labor in agriculture and domestic service in rural areas, as well as domestic servitude and sex trafficking in cities and towns; children are also utilized in the commission of illegal activities, including gambling and drug smugglingStufe 3 - the Government of Zimbabwe does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government did not report investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of trafficking cases and continued to rely on an international organization to provide law enforcement training, coordinate victim care and repatriation, and to lead prevention efforts (2009)
SudanSudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, are vulnerable to forced labor as domestic workers in homes throughout the country; some of these women and girls are subsequently sexually abused by male occupants of the household or forced to engage in commercial sex acts; Sudanese women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude in Middle Eastern countries, such as Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar, and to forced sex trafficking in European countries; some Sudanese men who voluntarily migrate to the Middle East as low-skilled laborers face conditions indicative of forced labor; Sudanese children transit Yemen en route to Saudi Arabia, where they are used in forced begging and street vending, and reportedly work in exploitative labor situations for Sudanese traders in the Central African Republic; Sudan is a transit and destination country for Ethiopian and Eritrean women subjected to domestic servitude in Sudan and Middle Eastern countries; Sudan is a destination for Ethiopian, Somali, and possibly Thai women subjected to forced prostitution; Sudanese children in Darfur were forcibly conscripted, at times through abduction, and used by armed groupsStufe 3 - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; while the government took some initial steps to acknowledge the existence of trafficking, draft anti-trafficking legislation, prosecute suspected traffickers, demobilize and reintegrate child soldiers, and waive overstay fines for foreign domestic workers, its efforts to combat human trafficking through law enforcement, protection, or prevention measures were undertaken in an ad hoc fashion, rather than as the result of strategic planning; the government convicted three traffickers, but did not officially identify trafficking victims or make public data regarding its efforts to combat human trafficking; its proxy militias reportedly unlawfully recruited and used child soldiers during the reporting period, and it did not take action to conclude a proposed action plan with the UN to address the problem (2012)
SyrienPrior to the ongoing political uprising and violent unrest, Syria was principally a destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor or sex trafficking; women from Indonesia, the Philippines, Somalia, and Ethiopia were recruited by employment agencies to work in Syria as domestic servants, but are subsequently subjected to conditions of forced labor; some economically desperate Syrian children are subjected to conditions of forced labor within the country, particularly by organized street begging rings; undocumented Filipina domestic workers continue to be sent to Syria; the daughters of some Iraqi refugees are reportedly contracted to work as maids but made to be prostitutes or forced laborers; some Syrian women in Lebanon may be forced to engage in street prostitution and small numbers of Syrian girls are reportedly brought to Lebanon for the purpose of prostitutionStufe 3 - the government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government did not demonstrate evidence of increasing efforts to investigate and punish trafficking offenses provide protective services to victims, widely inform the public about human trafficking, or provice much-needed anti-trafficking training to law enforcement and social welfare officials (2012)
TschadChad is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; the majority of children are trafficked within Chad for involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, involuntary agricultural labor, or for commercial sexual exploitation; to a lesser extent, Chadian children are also trafficked to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria for cattle herdingStufe 2 Watch List - the Government of Chad does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; by 2011 the Government of Chad reportedly ended all child conscription into its national army and continued to engage in efforts to demobilize remaining child soldiers from rebel forces; fewer efforts were made to address the forced labor of children in cattle herding, domestic service, and begging, or to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of Chadian children; the government did not enact legislation prohibiting trafficking in persons and undertook limited anti-trafficking law enforcement and victim protection activities (2009)
UsbekistanUzbekistan is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Kazakhstan, Russia, the Middle East, and Asia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Kazakhstan and Russia for purposes of forced labor in the construction, cotton, and tobacco industries; men and women are also trafficked internally for the purposes of domestic servitude, forced labor in the agricultural and construction industries, and for commercial sexual exploitationStufe 2 Watch List - Uzbekistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its negligible progress in ending forced labor, including forced child labor, in the annual cotton harvest, and did not make efforts to investigate or prosecute government officials suspected to be complicit in forced labor; the government did not conduct any awareness campaigns regarding forced labor in the annual cotton harvest or other internal trafficking, but did continue its previous awareness campaigns about the dangers of transnational trafficking (2008)
VenezuelaVenezuela is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor; Venezuelan women and girls are trafficked within the country for sexual exploitation, lured from the nation's interior to urban and tourist areas; to a lesser extent, Brazilian women and Colombian women are subjected to forced prostitution; some Venezuelan women are transported to Caribbean islands, particularly Aruba, Curacao, and Trinidad & Tobago, where they are subjected to forced prostitutionStufe 3 - the government investigated potential cases of suspected human trafficking and arrested at least 12 people for trafficking crimes during the reporting period; however, there was no further publicly available information regarding those cases; Venezuela is not making significant efforts to comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking (2008)
Welt insgesamtapproximately 800,000 people, mostly women and children, are trafficked annually across national borders, not including millions trafficked within their own countries; at least 80% of the victims are female and up to 50% are minors; 75% of all victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation; almost two-thirds of the global victims are trafficked intra-regionally within East Asia and the Pacific (260,000 to 280,000 people) and Europe and Eurasia (170,000 to 210,000 people)Stufe 2 Watch List: (42 countries) Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, the Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Burma, Burundi, Chad, China, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Federated States of Micronesia, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Iraq, Jamaica, Kenya, Lebanon, Liberia, Macau, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Russia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Suriname, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Venezuela Tier 3: (17 countries) Algeria, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Kuwait, Libya, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Yemen, Zimbabwe (2012)
Zentralafrikanische RepublikCentral African Republic is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; the majority of victims are children trafficked within the country for sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, street vending, and forced agricultural, mine, market and restaurant labor; to a lesser extent, children are trafficked from the Central African Republic to Cameroon, Nigeria, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo; rebels continue to abduct and exploit enslaved Sudanese, Congolese, Central African, and Ugandan children for use as cooks, porters, concubines, and combatantsStufe 3 - Central African Republic does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government, which has limited human and physical capital, did not investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses, identify or provide protective services to trafficking victims, or take steps to raise public awareness about the dangers of human trafficking; the revised Central African penal code, enacted in January 2010, outlaws all forms of trafficking in persons, but awareness of this statute remains low (2008)

In 2000, the US Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), reauthorized in 2003 and 2005, which provides tools for the US to combat trafficking in persons, both domestically and abroad. One of the law's key components is the creation of the US Department of State's annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which assesses the government response (i.e., the current situation) in some 150 countries with a significant number of victims trafficked across their borders who are recruited, harbored, transported, provided, or obtained for forced labor or sexual exploitation. Countries in the annual report are rated in three tiers, based on government efforts to combat trafficking. The countries identified in this entry are those listed in the 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report as Tier 2 Watch List or Tier 3 based on the following tier rating definitions:

* Tier 2 Watch List countries do not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but are making significant efforts to do so, and meet one of the following criteria:
1. they display high or significantly increasing number of victims,
2. they have failed to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons, or,
3. they have committed to take action over the next year.


Tier 3 countries neither satisfy the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking nor demonstrate a significant effort to do so. Countries in this tier are subject to potential non-humanitarian and non-trade sanctions.


Quellen
  • CIA Worldfactbook - Trafficking in persons, abgerufen am 20.05.2013
    Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded, or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues, estimates that 12.3 million people worldwide are enslaved in forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, and involuntary servitude at any given time. Human trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat, depriving people of their human rights and freedoms, risking global health, promoting social breakdown, inhibiting development by depriving countries of their human capital, and helping fuel the growth of organized crime.

  • Seite „Drogenhandel“. In: Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. Bearbeitungsstand: 4. April 2013, 17:46 UTC. URL: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Drogenhandel&oldid=117044606 (Abgerufen: 21. Mai 2013, 07:54 UTC) 

  • Seite „Droge“. In: Wikipedia, Die freie Enzyklopädie. Bearbeitungsstand: 3. Mai 2013, 13:36 UTC. URL: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Droge&oldid=118156679 (Abgerufen: 21. Mai 2013, 08:05 UTC)

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