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Wehrpflicht

Als Wehrpflicht bezeichnet man die Pflicht eines Staatsbürgers, für einen gewissen Zeitraum in der Armee oder einer anderen Wehrformation (zum Beispiel im Bereich des Katastrophenschutzes) seines Landes zu dienen. Ob und für wen eine Wehrpflicht besteht, ist in verschiedenen Ländern unterschiedlich geregelt. Mit wenigen Ausnahmen (Israel, teilweise China) erstreckt sich die Wehrpflicht nur auf die männliche Bevölkerung, dennoch wird häufig auch synonym von einer allgemeinen Wehrpflicht gesprochen.

Land Wehrpflicht
Afghanistan22 years of age; inductees are contracted into service for a 4-year term (2005)
Ägypten18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2008)
Albanien19 years of age (2004)
Algerien19-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2006)
Angola20-45 years of age for compulsory and 18-45 years for voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; Angolan citizenship required; minimum age for women volunteers is 20; the MGA is entirely staffed with volunteers (2010)
Argentinien18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental permission); no conscription (2001)
Armenien18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2010)
Aserbaidschanmen between 18 and 35 are liable for military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; length of military service is 18 months and 12 months for university graduates (2006)
Äthiopien18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct call-ups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2009)
Australien17 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; women allowed to serve in Army combat units in non-combat support roles (2010)
Bahrain17 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for NCOs, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2010)
Belarus18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (2005)
Belgien18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription suspended (2010)
Belize18 years of age for voluntary military service; laws allow for conscription only if volunteers are insufficient; conscription has never been implemented; volunteers typically outnumber available positions by 3:1 (2008)
Benin21 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; in practice, volunteers may be taken at the age of 18; both sexes are eligible for military service; conscript tour of duty - 18 months (2006)
Bhutan18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)
Bolivien18-49 years of age for 12-month compulsory military service; when annual number of volunteers falls short of goal, compulsory recruitment is effected, including conscription of boys as young as 14; 15-19 years of age for voluntary premilitary service, provides exemption from further military service (2009)
Bosnien und Herzegowina18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in January 2006; 4-month service obligation; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service (2009)
Botsuana18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; official minimum age is unknown (2001)
Brasilien21-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 9 to 12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2001)
Brunei Darussalam18 years of age (est.) for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve (2007)
Bulgarien18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2010)
Burundimilitary service is voluntary; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 did not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government had previously said each recruit must have a primary school-leaving certificate; mandatory retirement age 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), and 55 (officers) (2010)
Chile18-45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service, although the right to compulsory recruitment is retained; service obligation - 12 months for Army, 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2008)
China18-22 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with 24-month service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; in 2010, a decision was made to allow women in combat roles (2010)
Costa Rica18 years of age (2004 est.)
Côte d'Ivoire18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service; voluntary recruitment of former rebels into the new national army is restricted to ages 22-29 (2010)
Curaçaono conscription (2010)
Dänemark18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months according to specialization; reservists are assigned to mobilization units following completion of their conscript service; women eligible to volunteer for military service (2004)
DeutschlandDie Wehrpflicht wurde in Deutschland am 21. Juli 1956 eingeführt. Die Möglichkeit der Kriegsdienstverweigerung wurde im März 1956 in das Grundgesetz aufgenommen. 1968 wurde auch die Wehrpflicht im Grundgesetz verankert. Am 15. Dezember 2010 wurde durch das Bundeskabinett eine Aussetzung der Wehrpflicht zum 1. Juli 2011 beschlossen. Die letzten Wehrpflichtigen wurden zum 1. Januar 2011 einberufen.
Dhekelia 
Dominikanische Republik18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
Ecuador20 years of age for selective conscript military service; 12-month service obligation (2008)
El Salvador18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 16-22 years of age for voluntary male or female service; service obligation - 12 months, with 11 months for officers and NCOs (2009)
Estlandobligation for compulsory service ages 16-60, with conscription "likely" ages 18-27; service requirement 8-11 months (2009)
Europäische Union 
Fidschi18 years of age for voluntary military service (2010)
Finnland18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory - and female voluntary - national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months; mandatory retirement at age 60 (2010)
Frankreich17-40 years of age for male or female voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; 12-month service obligation; women serve in noncombat military posts (2010)
Gabun20 years of age for voluntary military service; there is no conscription (2009)
Georgien18 to 34 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (2005)
Ghana18 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription (2010)
Griechenland19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; during wartime the law allows for recruitment beginning January of the year of inductee's 18th birthday, thus including 17 year olds; 17 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation - 1 year for all services; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2008)
Guatemalaall male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are liable for military service; conscript service obligation varies from 12 to 24 months; women can serve as officers (2009)
Haiti18 years of age (2004 est.)
Honduras18 years of age for voluntary 2 to 3-year military service (2004)
Hongkong18 years of age (2004 est.)
Indien17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women may join as officers, but for noncombat roles only (2010)
Indonesien18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)
Irak18-40 years of age for voluntary military service (2010)
Iran19 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for volunteers; 17 years of age for Law Enforcement Forces; 15 years of age for Basij Forces (Popular Mobilization Army); conscript military service obligation - 18 months; women exempt from military service (2008)
Irland17-25 years of age for male or female voluntary military service (17-27 years of age for the Naval Service); enlistees 16 years of age can be recruited for apprentice specialist positions; 17-35 years of age for the Reserve Defense Forces (RDF); maximum obligation 12 years (5 years IDF, 7 years RDF); EU citizenship or 5-year residence in Ireland required (2010)
Israel18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druzes) and voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military service; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation - 36 months for enlisted men, 21 months for enlisted women, 48 months for officers; pilots commit to 9 years service; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), 24 (women) (2010)
Italien18-27 year of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished January 2005; women may serve in any military branch; 10-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 45 (Army and Air Force) or 39 (Navy) (2006)
Jamaika18 years of age for voluntary military service; younger recruits may be conscripted with parental consent (2001)
Japan18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)
Jemenvoluntary military service program authorized in 2001; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Jordanien17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription at age 18 was suspended in 1999, although all males under age 37 are required to register; women not subject to conscription, but can volunteer to serve in non-combat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps; conscription for males only resurrected in July 2007 in order to provide youth training necessary for job market needs (2010)
Kambodschaconscription law of October 2006 requires all males between 18-30 to register for military service; 18-month service obligation (2006)
Kamerun18-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; high school graduation required; service obligation 4 years; the government makes periodic calls for volunteers (2010)
Kanada17 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for reserve and military college applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2008)
Kasachstan18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; minimum age for volunteers NA (2004)
Katar18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)
Kirgisistan18 years of age for compulsory male military service in the armed forces or Interior Ministry; service obligation 1 year; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2010)
Kolumbien18-24 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; service obligation - 18 months (2004)
Kongo18 years of age for voluntary military service; women allowed to serve (2007)
Korea, Demokratische Volksrepublik17 years of age (2004)
Korea, Republik20-30 years of age for compulsory military service, with middle school education required; conscript service obligation - less than 22 months (Army, Marines), approx. 24 months (Navy), approx. 25 months (Air Force) (to be reduced to 18 months beginning 2016); 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service; women, in service since 1950, admitted to 7 service branches, including infantry, but excluded from artillery, armor, anti-air, and chaplaincy corps; some 4,000 women serve as commissioned and noncommissioned officers, approx. 2.3% of all officers; HIV-positive individuals are exempt from military service (2010)
Kosovo 
Kroatien18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary service; 6-month conscript service obligation; full conversion to voluntary military service by 2010 (2006)
Kuba17-28 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation; both sexes subject to military service (2006)
Kuwait18-30 years of age for compulsory and 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women age 18-30 may be subject to compulsory military service; conscription suspended in 2001 (2009)
Laos18 years of age for compulsory military service; minimum 18-month conscript service obligation (2010)
Lettland18 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; conscription abolished January 2007; under current law, every citizen is entitled to serve in the armed forces for life (2009)
Libyen17 years of age (2004)
Litauen19-26 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation; male registration required at age 16 (2009)
Luxemburg17-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2010)
Madagaskar18-25 years of age for male-only voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation - 18 months (either military or equivalent civil service); 20-30 years of age for National Gendarmerie recruits (35 years of age for those with military experience) (2010)
Malaysia18 years of age for voluntary military service (2005)
Marokko18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (2004)
Mazedonien18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)
Mexiko18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2007)
Moldau18 years of age for compulsory military service; 17 years of age for voluntary service; male registration required at age 16; 12-month service obligation (2009)
Mongolei18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2006)
Montenegrocompulsory national military service abolished August 2006
Myanmar18 years of age for voluntary military service for both sexes; forced conscription of children, although officially prohibited, reportedly continues (2007)
Nepal18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for military training; no conscription (2010)
Neuseeland17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18; no conscription (2010)
Nicaragua17 years of age for voluntary military service; tour of duty 18-36 months (2008)
Niederlande20 years of age for an all-volunteer force (2004)
Niederländische Antillen16 years of age for National Guard recruitment; no conscription (2004)
Niger17-21 years of age for selective compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2009)
Nigeria18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
Norwegen18-44 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 12-month service obligation, in practice shortened to 8 to 9 months; although all males between ages of 18 and 44 are liable for service, in practice they are seldom called to duty after age 30; reserve obligation to age 35-60; 16 years of age for volunteers to the Home Guard, who serve 6-month duty tours (2009)
Oman18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)
Österreich18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for male or female voluntary service; service obligation 6 months of training, followed by an 8-year reserve obligation; conscripts cannot be deployed in military operations outside Austria (2009)
Pakistan17-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2009)
Paraguay18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months for Army, 24 months for Navy; volunteers for the Air Force must be younger than 22 years of age with a secondary school diploma (2010)
Peru18-30 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; no conscription (2008)
Philippinen18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2010)
Polen18-28 years of age for male voluntary or compulsory military service; service obligation shortened from 12 to 9 months in 2005; conscription is to end in 2012; only soldiers who have completed their conscript service are allowed to volunteer for professional service; as of April 2004, women are only allowed to serve as officers and noncommissioned officers; reserve obligation to age 50 (2009)
Portugal18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2010)
Réunion18 years of age (2004 est.)
Rumänien18-35 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription officially ended October 2006; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive contracts for 3-year terms until age 36 (2009)
Russische Föderation18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; males are registered for the draft at 17 years of age; service obligation - 1 year (conscripts can only be sent to combat zones after 6 months training); reserve obligation to age 50; note: over 60% of draft-age Russian males receive some type of deferment - generally health related - each draft cycle (2009)
Saint-Martin 
Saint-Martin 
Saudi-Arabien18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2004)
Schweden18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); the Swedish Parliament has abolished compulsory military service, with exclusively voluntary recruitment as of July 2010; conscription remains an option in emergencies; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47 (2010)
Schweiz19-26 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; every Swiss male has to serve at least 260 days in the armed forces; conscripts receive 18 weeks of mandatory training, followed by seven 3-week intermittent recalls for training during the next 10 years (2010)
Senegal18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Serbien17 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; conscription to be abolished effective 2011; 6-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 60 for men and 50 for women (2010)
Sint Maartenno conscription (2010)
Slowakei18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2010)
Slowenien18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2010)
Spanien20 years of age (2004)
Sri Lanka18 years of age for voluntary military service; 5-year service obligation (2010)
St. Barthélemy 
St. Martin 
St. Martin 
Südafrika18 years of age for voluntary military service; women are eligible to serve in noncombat roles; 2-year service obligation (2007)
Sudan18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory and voluntary military service; 12-24 month service obligation (2009)
Syrien18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 30 months (18 months in the Syrian Arab Navy); women are not conscripted but may volunteer to serve (2004)
Tadschikistan18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2009)
Taiwan19-35 years of age for male compulsory military service; service obligation 12 months; women may enlist; women in Air Force service are restricted to noncombat roles; reserve obligation to age 30 (Army); the Ministry of Defense has announced plans to implement an incremental voluntary enlistment system 2010-2015, with 10% fewer conscripts each year thereafter, although nonvolunteers will still be required to perform alternative service or go through 3-4 months of military training (2010)
Thailand21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males are registered at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation (2009)
Timor-Leste18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Tschad20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)
Tschechische Republik18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)
Tunesien20 years of age for compulsory military service, 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 1-year conscript service obligation (2007)
Türkei20 years of age (2004)
Turkmenistan18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2009)
Ukraine18-25 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months for Army and Air Force, 24 months for Navy (2004)
Ungarn18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 6-month service obligation (2010)
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges 
Usbekistan18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2009)
Venezuela18-30 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 30-month conscript service obligation; all citizens 18-50 years old are obligated to register for military service (2008)
Vereinigte Arabische Emirate18 years of age (est.) for voluntary military service; 18 years of age for officers and women; no conscription (2009)
Vereinigte Staaten18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; maximum enlistment age 42 (Army), 27 (Air Force), 34 (Navy), 28 (Marines); service obligation 8 years, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines) (2010)
Vietnam18 years of age (male) for compulsory military service; females may volunteer for active duty military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (3 to 4 years in the navy); 18-45 years of age (male) or 18-40 years of age (female) for Militia Force or Self Defense Forces (2006)
Welt insgesamt 
ZypernGreek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG): 18-50 years of age for compulsory military service for all Greek Cypriot males; 17 years of age for voluntary service; women may volunteer for a 3-year term; length of normal service is 25 months (2009)

Weltkarte der Armeeformen. Grün: keine Streitkräfte. Blau: keine Wehrpflicht (Freiwilligenarmee / Berufsarmee). Orange: noch Wehrpflicht, aber eine Abschaffung in naher Zukunft ist bereits beschlossen. Rot: Wehrpflicht.

 

 


 


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