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Verfassung

Als Verfassung wird das zentrale Rechtsdokument oder der zentrale Rechtsbestand eines Staates, Gliedstaates oder Staatenverbundes bezeichnet. Sie regelt den grundlegenden organisatorischen Staatsaufbau, die territoriale Gliederung des Staates, die Beziehung zu seinen Gliedstaaten und zu anderen Staaten sowie das Verhältnis zu seinen Normunterworfenen und deren wichtigste Rechte und Pflichten. Die auf diese Weise konstituierten Staatsgewalten sind an die Verfassung als oberste Norm gebunden und ihre Macht über die Normunterworfenen wird durch sie begrenzt. Die verfassunggebende Gewalt geht in demokratischen Staaten vom Staatsvolk aus. Verfassungen enthalten meist auch Staatsaufgaben- und Staatszielbestimmungen, diese finden sich häufig in einer Präambel wieder.


Land Verfassung (Constitution)
Afghanistanconstitution drafted 14 December 2003-4 January 2004; signed 16 January 2004; ratified 26 January 2004
Ägypten11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980, 25 May 2005, and 26 March 2007
AkrotiriSovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Order in Council 1960, effective 16 August 1960, functions as a basic legal document
Albanienapproved by parliament on 21 October 1998; adopted by popular referendum on 22 November 1998; promulgated 28 November 1998
Algerien8 September 1963; revised 19 November 1976; effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, 28 November 1996, 10 April 2002, and 12 November 2008
Amerikanische JungferninselnRevised Organic Act of 22 July 1954
Amerikanisch-Samoaratified on 2 June 1966; effective 1 July 1967
AndorraAndorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; effective 28 April 1993
Angolaadopted by People's Assembly 25 August 1992
AnguillaAnguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990
Antigua und Barbuda1 November 1981
Äquatorialguineaapproved by national referendum 17 November 1991; amended January 1995
Argentinien1 May 1853; amended many times starting in 1860
Armenienadopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995; amendments adopted through a nationwide referendum 27 November 2005
Aruba1 January 1986
Aserbaidschanadopted 12 November 1995; modified by referendum 24 August 2002
Äthiopienratified 8 December 1994, effective 22 August 1995
Australien9 July 1900; effective on 1 January 1901
Bahamas10 July 1973
Bahrainadopted 14 February 2002
Bangladesch4 November 1972; effective 16 December 1972; suspended following coup of 24 March 1982; restored 10 November 1986; amended many times
Barbados30 November 1966
Belarus15 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 November 1996; revised again 17 October 2004 removing presidential term limits
Belgien7 February 1831; amended many times; revised 14 July 1993 to create a federal state
Belize21 September 1981
Beninadopted by referendum 2 December 1990
Bermuda8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003
Bhutanratified 18 July 2008
Bolivien7 February 2009
Bosnien und Herzegowinathe Dayton Peace Accords, signed on 14 December 1995 in Paris, included a constitution; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
BotsuanaMarch 1965; effective 30 September 1966
Brasilien5 October 1988
Britische Jungferninseln13 June 2007
Brunei Darussalam29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Bulgarienadopted on 12 July 1991
Burkina Fasoapproved by referendum 2 June 1991; formally adopted 11 June 1991; last amended January 2002
Burundiratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005
Chile11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 1989, 1991, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, and 2005
Chinamost recent promulgation 4 December 1982 with amendments in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004
Cookinseln4 August 1965
Costa Rica7 November 1949
Côte d´Ivoireapproved by referendum 23 July 2000
CuraçaoStaatsregeling, 10 October 2010; revised Kingdom Charter pending
Dänemark5 June 1953; note - constitution allowed for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state
Deutschland23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united Germany 3 October 1990
DhekeliaSovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Order in Council 1960, effective 16 August 1960, functions as a basic legal document
Dominica16 August 1960
Dominikanische Republik28 November 1966; amended 25 July 2002 and January 2010
Dschibutiapproved by referendum 4 September 1992; note - constitution allows for multiparties
Ecuador20 October 2008
El Salvador20 December 1983
Eritreaadopted on 23 May 1997, but has not yet been fully implemented
Estlandadopted 28 June 1992
Europäische Unionnone; note: based on a series of treaties: the Treaty of Paris, which set up the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951; the Treaties of Rome, which set up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in 1957; the Single European Act in 1986; the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht) in 1992; the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997; and the Treaty of Nice in 2003; note - a new draft Constitutional Treaty, signed on 29 October 2004 in Rome, gave member states two years for ratification either by parliamentary vote or national referendum before it was scheduled to take effect on 1 November 2006; defeat in French and Dutch referenda in May-June 2005 dealt a severe setback to the ratification process; in June 2007, the European Council agreed on a clear and concise mandate for an Intergovernmental Conference to form a political agreement and put it into legal form; this agreement, known as the Reform Treaty, would have served as a constitution and was presented to the European Council in October 2007 for individual country ratification; it was rejected by Irish voters in June 2008, again stalling the ratification process; the Reform Treaty, more recently known as the Treaty of Lisbon, was again circulated for ratification, and by November 2009 was approved by all 27 countries; it came into effect on 1 December 2009
Falklandinseln1 January 2009
Färöer5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Fidschienacted on 25 July 1997; effective on 28 July 1998; note - it encourages multiculturalism and makes multiparty government mandatory
Finnland1 March 2000
Frankreichadopted by referendum 28 September 1958; effective 4 October 1958; amended many times; note: amended concerning election of president in 1962; amended to comply with provisions of 1992 EC Maastricht Treaty, 1997 Amsterdam Treaty, 2003 Treaty of Nice; amended to tighten immigration laws in 1993; amended in 2000 to change the seven-year presidential term to a five-year term; amended in 2005 to make the EU constitutional treaty compatible with the Constitution of France and to ensure that the decision to ratify EU accession treaties would be made by referendum
Französisch-Guayana28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Französisch-Polynesien4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
Gabunadopted 14 March 1991
Gambiaapproved by national referendum 8 August 1996; effective 16 January 1997
Georgienadopted 24 August 1995
Ghanaapproved 28 April 1992
Gibraltar5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007
Grenada19 December 1973
Griechenland11 June 1975; amended March 1986 and April 2001
Grönland(November 2008) Act on Greenland Self Government
Großbritannienunwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Guadeloupe28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
GuamOrganic Act of Guam, 1 August 1950
Guatemala31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended 25 May 1993; reinstated 5 June 1993; amended November 1993
Guernseyunwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Guinea23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)
Guinea-Bissau16 May 1984; amended 4 May 1991, 4 December 1991, 26 February 1993, 9 June 1993, and in 1996
Guyana6 October 1980
Haitiapproved March 1987; note: suspended June 1988 with most articles reinstated March 1989; constitutional government ousted in a military coup in September 1991, although in October 1991 military government claimed to be observing the constitution; returned to constitutional rule in October 1994; constitution, while technically in force between 2004-2006, was not enforced; returned to constitutional rule in May 2006
Honduras11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times
HongkongBasic Law, approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress, is Hong Kong's charter
Indien26 January 1950; amended many times
IndonesienAugust 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
Insel Manunwritten; note - The Isle of Man Constitution Act of 1961 does not embody the unwritten Manx Constitution
Irakratified on 15 October 2005 (subject to review by the Constitutional Review Committee and a possible public referendum)
Iran2-3 December 1979; revised in 1989; note: the revision in 1989 expanded powers of the presidency and eliminated the prime ministership
Irlandadopted 1 July 1937 by plebiscite; effective 29 December 1937
Island16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944; amended many times
Israelno formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law; note - since May 2003 the Constitution, Law, and Justice Committee of the Knesset has been working on a draft constitution
Italienpassed 11 December 1947, effective 1 January 1948; amended many times
Jamaika6 August 1962
Japan3 May 1947
Jemen16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001
Jerseyunwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Jordanien1 January 1952; amended many times
KaimaninselnThe Cayman Islands Constitution Order 2009, 6 November 2009
Kambodschapromulgated 21 September 1993
Kamerunapproved by referendum 20 May 1972; adopted 2 June 1972; revised January 1996
Kanadamade up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments
Kap Verde25 September 1992; a major revision on 23 November 1995 substantially increased the powers of the president; a 1999 revision created the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)
Kasachstanfirst post-independence constitution adopted 28 January 1993; new constitution adopted by national referendum 30 August 1995
Katarratified by public referendum on 29 April 2003, endorsed by the Amir on 8 June 2004, effective on 9 June 2005
Kenia27 August 2010; the new constitution abolishes the position of prime minister and establishes a bicameral legislature; many details have yet to be finalized and will require significant legislative action
Kirgisistan27 June 2010
Kiribati12 July 1979
Kokosinseln (Keelinginseln)Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955 (23 November 1955) as amended by the Territories Law Reform Act of 1992
Kolumbien5 July 1991; amended many times
Komoren23 December 2001
Kongoapproved by referendum 20 January 2002
Kongo, Demokratische Republik18 February 2006
Korea, Demokratische Volksrepublikadopted 1948; revised several times most recently in 2009
Korea, Republik17 July 1948; note - amended or rewritten many times; current constitution approved on 29 October 1987
Kosovoadopted by the Kosovo Assembly on 9 April 2008; effective 15 June 2008
Kroatienadopted on 22 December 1990; revised 2000, 2001
Kuba24 February 1976; amended July 1992 and June 2002
Kuwaitapproved and promulgated 11 November 1962
Laospromulgated 14 August 1991; amended in 2003
Lesotho2 April 1993
Lettland15 February 1922; restored to force by the Constitutional Law of the Republic of Latvia adopted by the Supreme Council on 21 August 1991; multiple amendments since
Libanon23 May 1926; amended a number of times, most recently in 1990 to include changes necessitated by the Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Ta'if Accord) of October 1989
Liberia6 January 1986
Libyennone; note - following the September 1969 military overthrow of the Libyan government, the Revolutionary Command Council replaced the existing constitution with the Constitutional Proclamation in December 1969; in March 1977, Libya adopted the Declaration of the Establishment of the People's Authority
Liechtenstein5 October 1921; amended 15 September 2003
Litauenadopted 25 October 1992; last amended 13 July 2004
Luxemburg17 October 1868; occasional revisions
MacauBasic Law, approved on 31 March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's charter
Madagaskarpassed by referendum 17 November 2010; promulgated 11 December 2010 (2010)
Malawi18 May 1994
Malaysia31 August 1957; amended many times the latest in 2007
Maledivennew constitution ratified 7 August 2008
Maliadopted 12 January 1992
Malta1964; amended many times
Marokko10 March 1972; revised 4 September 1992, amended September 1996; note: the amendment of September 1996 was to create a bicameral legislature
Marshallinseln1 May 1979
Martinique28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Mauretanien12 July 1991
Mauritius12 March 1968; amended 12 March 1992
Mayotte4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
Mazedonienadopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001, 2005 and in 2009 note: amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights, in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary, and in 2009 with amendments related to the threshold required to elect the president
Mexiko5 February 1917
Mikronesien10 May 1979
Moldauadopted 29 July 1994; effective 27 August 1994; note - replaced 1979 Soviet constitution
Monaco17 December 1962; modified 2 April 2002
Mongolei13 January 1992
Montenegroapproved 19 October 2007 (by the Assembly)
Montserrateffective 19 December 1989
Mosambik30 November 1990
Myanmar3 January 1974; suspended since 18 September 1988; a constitution officially received 92.48% support in a flawed May 2008 referendum that most observers judged fell far short of international standards of free and fair elections; note - a new constitution is to take effect when a parliament is convened possibly in late January 2011
Namibiaratified 9 February 1990, effective 12 March 1990
Nauru29 January 1968; amended 17 May 1968
Nepal15 January 2007 (interim Constitution); note - in April 2008, a Constituent Assembly was elected to draft and promulgate a new constitution by May 2010, but the deadline has been extended to May 2011
Neukaledonien4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
Neuseelandconsists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand parliaments, as well as The Constitution Act 1986, which is the principal formal charter; adopted 1 January 1987, effective 1 January 1987
Nicaragua9 January 1987; revised in 1995, 2000, and 2005
Niederlandeadopted 1815; amended many times, most recently in 2002
Niederländische Antillen29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands, as amended
Nigeradopted 18 July 1999
Nigeriaadopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
Niue19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)
Nördliche MarianenConstitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands effective 1 January 1978; Covenant Agreement fully effective 4 November 1986
NorfolkinselNorfolk Island Act of 1979 as amended in 2005
Norwegen17 May 1814; amended many times
Omannone; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a basic law considered by the government to be a constitution which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens
Österreich1920; revised 1929; reinstated 1 May 1945; note - during the period 1 May 1934-1 May 1945 there was a fascist (corporative) constitution in place
Pakistan12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007; amended 19 April 2010
Palau1 January 1981
Panama11 October 1972; revised in 1978, 1983, 1994, and 2004
Papua-Neuguinea16 September 1975
Paraguaypromulgated 20 June 1992
Peru29 December 1993
Philippinen2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
PitcairninselnThe Pitcairn Constitution Order 2010, effective 4 March 2010
Polenadopted by the National Assembly 2 April 1997; passed by national referendum 25 May 1997; effective 17 October 1997
Portugaladopted 2 April 1976; subsequently revised; note: the revisions placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy; they allowed for the privatization of nationalized firms and government-owned communications media
Puerto Ricoratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952
Réunion28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Ruandanew constitution passed by referendum 26 May 2003
Rumänien8 December 1991; revised 29 October 2003
Russische Föderationadopted 12 December 1993
Salomonen7 July 1978
Sambia24 August 1991; amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limits
Samoa1 January 1962
San Marino8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
São Tomé und Príncipeapproved March 1990, effective 10 September 1990
Saudi-Arabiengoverned according to Islamic law; the Basic Law that articulates the government's rights and responsibilities was promulgated by royal decree in 1992
Schweden1 January 1975
Schweizrevision of Constitution of 1874 approved by the Federal Parliament 18 December 1998, adopted by referendum 18 April 1999, officially entered into force 1 January 2000
Senegaladopted 7 January 2001
Serbienadopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006
Seychellen18 June 1993
Sierra Leone1 October 1991; amended several times
Simbabwe21 December 1979
Singapur3 June 1959; amended 1965 (based on pre-independence State of Singapore Constitution)
Sint MaartenStaatsregeling, 10 October 2010; revised Kingdom Charter pending
Slowakeiratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998; amended February 2001; note: the change in September 1998 allowed direct election of the president; the amendment of February 2001 allowed Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Slowenienadopted 23 December 1991, amended 14 July 1997 and 25 July 2000
Somalia25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979; note: the formation of transitional governing institutions, known as the Transitional Federal Government, is currently ongoing
Spanienapproved by legislature 31 October 1978; passed by referendum 6 December 1978; signed by the king 27 December 1978
Sri Lankaadopted 16 August 1978, certified 31 August 1978; amended 20 December 2001
St. Barthélemy4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
St. Kitts und Nevis19 September 1983
St. Lucia22 February 1979
St. Martin4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
St. Pierre und Miquelon4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
St. Vincent und die Grenadinen27 October 1979
Südafrika10 December 1996; note - certified by the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996; was signed by then President MANDELA on 10 December 1996; and entered into effect on 4 February 1997
SudanInterim National Constitution ratified 5 July 2005; note: under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the Interim National Constitution was ratified 5 July 2005; Constitution of Southern Sudan was signed December 2005
Südgeorgien und die Südlichen Sandwichinselnadopted 3 October 1985
Surinameratified 30 September 1987; effective 30 October 1987
Swasilandsigned by the King in July 2005; went into effect on 8 February 2006
Syrien13 March 1973
Tadschikistan6 November 1994
Taiwanadopted on 25 December 1946; promulgated on 1 January 1947; effective 25 December 1947; amended numerous times
Tansania25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Thailand24 August 2007
Timor-Leste20 May 2002 (effective date)
Togoadopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Tokelauadministered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948; amended in 1970
Tonga4 November 1875; revised 1 January 1967
Trinidad und Tobago1 August 1976
Tschadpassed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
Tschechische Republikratified on 16 December 1992, effective on 1 January 1993; amended in 1997, 2000, 2001 (twice), 2002
Tunesien1 June 1959; amended 1988, 2002
Türkei7 November 1982; amended 17 May 1987, 1995, 2001, 2007 and 2010; note - amendment passed by referendum concerning presidential elections on 21 October 2007
Turkmenistanadopted 26 September 2008
Turks- und CaicosinselnTurks and Caicos Islands Constitution (Interim Amendment) Order 2009, S.I. 2009/701 - effective 14 August 2009 - suspended Ministerial government, the House of Assembly, and the constitutional right to trial by jury, and imposed direct British rule
Tuvalu1 October 1978
Uganda8 October 1995; amended in 2005; note: the amendments in 2005 removed presidential term limits and legalized a multiparty political system
Ukraineadopted 28 June 1996
Ungarn18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989; and 1997; note: 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Uruguay27 November 1966; effective 15 February 1967; suspended 27 June 1973; revised 26 November 1989 and 7 January 1997
Usbekistanadopted 8 December 1992
Vanuatu30 July 1980
VatikanstadtFundamental Law promulgated by Pope JOHN PAUL II on 26 November 2000, effective 22 February 2001 (replaced the first Fundamental Law of 1929)
Venezuela30 December 1999
Vereinigte Arabische Emirate2 December 1971; made permanent in 1996
Vereinigte Staaten17 September 1787, effective 4 March 1789
Vietnam15 April 1992
Wallis und Futuna4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
WeihnachtsinselChristmas Island Act of 1958-59 (1 October 1958) as amended by the Territories Law Reform Act of 1992
Zentralafrikanische Republikratified by popular referendum 5 December 2004; effective 27 December 2004
Zypern16 August 1960 note: from December 1963, the Turkish Cypriots no longer participated in the government; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and for better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently since the mid-1960s; in 1975, following the 1974 Turkish intervention, Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which became the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)" when the Turkish Cypriots declared independence in 1983; a new constitution for the "TRNC" passed by referendum on 5 May 1985, although the "TRNC" remains unrecognized by any country other than Turkey

 

 

 

 

 


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