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 San Francisco earthquake 1906 - panoramic view

Ein Elementarrisiko (englisch Natural hazard) ist die Bedrohung durch ein "natürliches" Ereignis (Naturkatastrophe), welches negative Auswirkungen auf Menschen und Umwelt haben kann.

Viele Elementarrisiken sind kausal miteinander verbunden. So kann z.B. ein Erdbeben einen Tsunami auslosen und eine Dürre kann Hungersnot und erzwungene Migration zur Folge haben.

Ein konkretes Beispiel für die Unterscheidung zwischen einem Elementarrisiko und einer Naturkatastrophe bietet das San Francisco Erdbeben von 1906. Das Erdbeben an sich war eine Naturkatastrophe, während die Siedlung am Rande des Andreasgraben ein Elementarrisiko darstellt.

Afghanistandamaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts
Ägyptenperiodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
Albaniendestructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Algerienmountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Amerikanische Jungferninselnseveral hurricanes in recent years; frequent and severe droughts and floods; occasional earthquakes
Amerikanisch-Samoatyphoons common from December to March
Angolalocally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Anguillafrequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
Antarktikakatabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf
Antigua und Barbudahurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Äquatorialguineaviolent windstorms; flash floods
ArgentinienSan Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas
Arktischer Ozeanice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May
Armenienoccasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Arubahurricanes; lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt and is rarely threatened
Ashmore- und Cartierinselnsurrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards
Äthiopiengeologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
Atlantischer Ozeanicebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September; hurricanes (May to December)
Australiencyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
Bahamashurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind damage
Bahrainperiodic droughts; dust storms
Bangladeschdroughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Barbadosinfrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides
Belgienflooding is a threat along rivers and in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes
Belizefrequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
Beninhot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to March
Bermudahurricanes (June to November)
Bhutanviolent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
Bolivienflooding in the northeast (March-April)
Bosnien und Herzegowinadestructive earthquakes
Botsuanaperiodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Brasilienrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Britische Jungferninselnhurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
Britisches Territorium im Indischen OzeanNA
Brunei Darussalamtyphoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Bulgarienearthquakes; landslides
Burkina Fasorecurring droughts
Burundiflooding; landslides; drought
Cabo Verdeprolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active
Chilesevere earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
Chinafrequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Cookinselntyphoons (November to March)
Costa Ricaoccasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active volcanoes
Côte d'Ivoirecoast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
CuraçaoCuracao is south of the Caribbean hurricane belt and is rarely threatened
Dänemarkflooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
Dominicaflash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months
Dominikanische Republiklies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts
Dschibutiearthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
Ecuadorfrequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
El Salvadorknown as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Eritreafrequent droughts; locust swarms
Estlandsometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Europäische Unionflooding along coasts; avalanches in mountainous area; earthquakes in the south; volcanic eruptions in Italy; periodic droughts in Spain; ice floes in the Baltic
Falklandinselnstrong winds persist throughout the year
Fidschicyclonic storms can occur from November to January
Frankreichmetropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean; overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding; volcanic activity (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion)
Französische Süd- und AntarktisgebieteIle Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are inactive volcanoes; Iles Eparses subject to periodic cyclones; Bassas da India is a maritime hazard since it is under water for a period of three hours prior to and following the high tide and surrounded by reefs
Französisch-Polynesienoccasional cyclonic storms in January
Gambiadrought (rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last 30 years)
Ghanadry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Grenadalies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November
Griechenlandsevere earthquakes
Grönlandcontinuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Großbritannienwinter windstorms; floods
Guamfrequent squalls during rainy season; relatively rare but potentially destructive typhoons (June - December)
Guatemalanumerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms
Guineahot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
Guinea-Bissauhot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
Guyanaflash floods are a constant threat during rainy seasons
Haitilies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
Heard und McDonaldinselnMawson Peak, an active volcano, is on Heard Island
Hondurasfrequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
Hongkongoccasional typhoons
Indiendroughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
Indischer Ozeanoccasional icebergs pose navigational hazard in southern reaches
Indonesienoccasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
Insel ManNA
Irakdust storms; sandstorms; floods
Iranperiodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes
Islandearthquakes and volcanic activity
Israelsandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Italienregional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice
Jamaikahurricanes (especially July to November)
Jan Mayendominated by the volcano Beerenberg; volcanic activity resumed in 1970; the most recent eruption occurred in 1985
Japanmany dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; tsunamis; typhoons
Jemensandstorms and dust storms in summer
Jordaniendroughts; periodic earthquakes
Kaimaninselnhurricanes (July to November)
Kambodschamonsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Kamerunvolcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes
Kanadacontinuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Kasachstanearthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty
Katarhaze, dust storms, sandstorms common
Keniarecurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Kiribatityphoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level
Kokosinseln (Keelinginseln)cyclone season is October to April
Kolumbienhighlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
Komorencyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); Le Karthala on Grand Comore is an active volcano
Kongoseasonal flooding
Kongo, Demokratische Republikperiodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); in the east, in the Great Rift Valley, there are active volcanoes
Korallenmeerinselnoccasional tropical cyclones
Korea, Demokratische Volksrepubliklate spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall
Korea, Republikoccasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level seismic activity common in southwest
Kroatiendestructive earthquakes
Kubathe east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to November (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common
Kuwaitsudden cloudbursts are common from October to April and bring heavy rain, which can damage roads and houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year but are most common between March and August
Laosfloods, droughts
Lesothoperiodic droughts
Libanondust storms, sandstorms
Liberiadust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March)
Libyenhot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Madagaskarperiodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation
Malaysiaflooding; landslides; forest fires
Malediventsunamis; low elevation of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise
Malihot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Marokkonorthern mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts
Marshallinselninfrequent typhoons
Mauretanienhot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily in March and April; periodic droughts
Mauritiuscyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards
Mayottecyclones during rainy season
Mexikotsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
Mikronesientyphoons (June to December)
Mongoleidust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Montenegrodestructive earthquakes
Montserratsevere hurricanes (June to November); volcanic eruptions (Soufriere Hills volcano has erupted continuously since 1995)
Mosambiksevere droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Myanmardestructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts
Namibiaprolonged periods of drought
Nauruperiodic droughts
Nepalsevere thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
Neukaledoniencyclones, most frequent from November to March
Neuseelandearthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
Nicaraguadestructive earthquakes; volcanoes; landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Niederländische AntillenSint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are subject to hurricanes from July to October; Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane belt and are rarely threatened
Nigerrecurring droughts
Nigeriaperiodic droughts; flooding
Nördliche Marianenactive volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons (especially August to November)
Nordmazedonienhigh seismic risks
Norfolkinseltyphoons (especially May to July)
Norwegenrockslides, avalanches
Omansummer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
Österreichlandslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Pakistanfrequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Palautyphoons (June to December)
Panamaoccasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area
Papua-Neuguineaactive volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
Paraguaylocal flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
Pazifischer Ozeansurrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the "Pacific Ring of Fire"; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August and September); cyclical El Nino/La Nina phenomenon occurs in the equatorial Pacific, influencing weather in the Western Hemisphere and the western Pacific; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May; persistent fog in the northern Pacific can be a maritime hazard from June to December
Peruearthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Philippinenastride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
Pitcairninselntyphoons (especially November to March)
PortugalAzores subject to severe earthquakes
Puerto Ricoperiodic droughts; hurricanes
Ruandaperiodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
Rumänienearthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Russische Föderationpermafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia
Salomonentyphoons, but rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earthquakes, tremors, and volcanic activity; tsunamis
Sambiaperiodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
Samoaoccasional typhoons; active volcanism
San MarinoNA
São Tomé und PríncipeNA
Saudi-Arabienfrequent sand and dust storms
Schwedenice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Schweizavalanches, landslides; flash floods
Senegallowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Serbiendestructive earthquakes
Seychellenlies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; short droughts possible
Sierra Leonedry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to February); sandstorms, dust storms
Simbabwerecurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Sint Maartensubject to hurricanes from July to November
Slowenienflooding; earthquakes
Somaliarecurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Spanienperiodic droughts, occasional flooding
Spitzbergenice floes often block the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
Spratly-Inselntyphoons; numerous reefs and shoals pose a serious maritime hazard
Sri Lankaoccasional cyclones and tornadoes
St. Helenaactive volcanism on Tristan da Cunha, last eruption in 1961
St. Kitts und Nevishurricanes (July to October)
St. Luciahurricanes; volcanic activity
St. Martinsubject to hurricanes from July to November
St. Pierre und Miquelonpersistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard
St. Vincent und die Grenadinenhurricanes; Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent is a constant threat
Südafrikaprolonged droughts
Sudandust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Südgeorgien und die Südlichen Sandwichinselnthe South Sandwich Islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism
Südlicher Ozeanhuge icebergs with drafts up to several hundred meters; smaller bergs and iceberg fragments; sea ice (generally 0.5 to 1 m thick) with sometimes dynamic short-term variations and with large annual and interannual variations; deep continental shelf floored by glacial deposits varying widely over short distances; high winds and large waves much of the year; ship icing, especially May-October; most of region is remote from sources of search and rescue
Syriendust storms, sandstorms
Tadschikistanearthquakes; floods
Taiwanearthquakes; typhoons
Tansaniaflooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
Thailandland subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
Timor-Lestefloods and landslides are common; earthquakes; tsunamis; tropical cyclones
Togohot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Tokelaulies in Pacific typhoon belt
Tongacyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou
Trinidad und Tobagooutside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Tschadhot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Tschechische Republikflooding
Türkeisevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Turks- und Caicosinselnfrequent hurricanes
Tuvalusevere tropical storms are usually rare, but in 1997 there were three cyclones; low level of islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level
United States Pacific Island Wildlife RefugesKingman Reef: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of less than 2 m makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazardBaker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard;
Uruguayseasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Vanuatutropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April); volcanic eruption on Aoba (Ambae) island began on 27 November 2005, volcanism also causes minor earthquakes; tsunamis
Venezuelasubject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts
Vereinigte Arabische Emiratefrequent sand and dust storms
Vereinigte Staatentsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development
Vietnamoccasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
Wakeoccasional typhoons
Wallis und FutunaNA
Weihnachtsinselthe narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Welt insgesamtlarge areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones); natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions); volcanism: the world is home to more than 1,500 potentially active volcanoes, with over 500 of these having erupted in historical times; an estimated 500 million people live near these volcanoes; associated dangers include lava flows, lahars (mudflows), pyroclastic flows, ash clouds, ash fall, ballistic projectiles, gas emissions, landslides, earthquakes, and tsunamis; in the 1990s, the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, created a list of 16 volcanoes worthy of special study because of their great potential for destruction: Avachinsky-Koryaksky (Russia), Colima (Mexico), Etna (Italy), Galeras (Colombia), Mauna Loa (United States), Merapi (Indonesia), Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Rainier (United States), Sakurajima (Japan), Santa Maria (Guatemala), Santorini (Greece), Taal (Philippines), Teide (Spain), Ulawun (Papua New Guinea), and Unzen (Japan)
Westsaharahot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely restricting visibility
Zentralafrikanische Republikhot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are common
Zypernmoderate earthquake activity; droughts